ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THREE TYPES OF MEDICATED SOAP ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FROM WOUND INFECTION

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

Antibacterial activity is the ability to either destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. This can be referred to as either cidal or static effects respectively. This is significant with respects to the human body in preventing sepsis and skin infections (Higaki et. al., 2000). Soap cleanses because molecules are attracted to the fatty part of the anions of the soap solution and are pulled off by dirty surface into water. Antiseptic soaps contain additional ingredients, usually for the treatment of skin disorders (Eckburg et. al., 2005). Antiseptic soaps have germicidal substances like, irgasan, trichlorocarbanlide, (TCC) etc, incorporated into them to enhance their antibacterial activity (Friedman and Wolf, 1996). These germicidal substances are added in a specific amount and their percentages are always stated on the soap case or leaflet which contains the information on how to use the soap for various purposes.

Normal microflora is found on the surface of all human skin (Prescott et. al., 2008). The normal skin bacterial flora in human is composed of three major groups of gram-positive bacteria: the coliform bacteria, the micrococci and the staphylococci with only a minor component of gram-negative bacilli (Nobel, 1998). This is because the skin is a comparatively dry habitat, with available water as the major factor controlling growth. Occlusion of the skin is a potent way to increase the number of bacteria on the skin (Breuer et al., 2002).

Staphylococcus species, though a common cause of human infections are found as non-pathogenic microorganisms in human samples. Staphylococcus aureus is the most important member of this group (Diekema et. al., 2001) and has been associated with different clinical conditions and syndromes (Javid et. al., 2006). In Ikegbunam et al., (2013), Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen affecting both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals frequently resulting in high morbidity and complications which constitutes problems to health. It is a gram-positive, non-spore forming cocci bacterium that is a member of the firmicutes, which are found as normal human microbiota of the skin and nasal cavity. It is the most frequently encountered bacterial species in hospitals (Emmerson, 2004). The major reservoirs of Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals are colonized in infected patients and hospitals workers (Javid et al., 2006). Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus are at risk of developing endogenous infections or transmitting infections to health care workers and patients. Its disease manifestation ranges from minor skin infections to life threatening diseases such as folliculitis, furuncle (boil), dermitis (eczema) carbuncle, ulcers, pneumonia sepsis and wound infections. Staphylococcus aureus may also cause food poisoning, scalded-skin syndrome and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) through production of toxins.

Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive coccal bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and is frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin. It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction. Although Staphylococcus aureus is not always pathogenic, it is a common cause of skin infections such as abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. Pathogenic strain often promote infections by producing potent protein toxins and expressing cell-surface protein that bind and inactivate antibodies. The emergence of antibiotics – resistance forms of Staphylococcus aureus such as MRSA is a World Wide problem in clinical medicine.

Staphylococcus was first identified in 2000 in Aberdeen Scotland by the Surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in pus from a surgical abscess in a knee joint. This name was later appended to Staphylococcus aureus by Friedrich Julius Rosenbach, who was credited by the official system of nomenclature at this time. An estimated 20% of the human population are long-term carriers of Staphylococcus aureus which can be found as part of the normal skin flora and in the nostrils.

Staphylococcus aureus is the most common species of Staphylococcus to cause Staphylococcus infection and is a successful pathogen due to a combination of nasal carriage and bacterial immunoevasive strategies. Staphylococcus aureus can cause a range of illnesses, from minor skin infections such as pimples, impetigo, boils, cellulities, folliculities, carbuncles, scalded skin syndrome, and abscesses, to life-threatening disease such as pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis toxic shock syndrome, bacteremia, and sepsis.

It’s incidence ranges from skin, soft tissue, respiratory, bone, joint, endovascular to wound infections. It is still one of the five most common causes of hospital acquired infections and is often the cause of post surgical wound infection each year, around 500,000 patients in United State Hospitals contract a Staphylococcal infections like Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus infections may cause disease due to direct infection or due to the production of toxins by the bacterial. Boils, impetigo, food poisoning, cellulitis, and toxic shock syndrome are all examples of diseases that can be caused by Staphylococcus.

Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many Staphylococcal infections, but it may also occur as a commensal. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus does not always indicate infection. It can survive from hours to weeks, or even months, on dry environmental surfaces, depending on strain. Staphylococcus aureus can infect tissues when the skin or mucosal barriers have been breached. This can lead to many different types of infections, including pimples, boils and carbuncles (a collection of boils). Staphylococcus aureus infection can spread through contact with pus from an infected wound, skin-to-skin contact with an infected person by producing hyaluronidase that destroy tissues, and contact with objects such as towels, clothing or athletic equipment used by an infected person. Deeply penetrating Staphylococcus aureus infections can be severe. Prosthetic joints put a person at particular risk of septic arthritis, and Staphylococcal endocarditis (infection of the heart valves) and pneumonia. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus can host phages such as PVL (produces Panton-valatine leukocidin), that increases virulence.

Staphylococcus aureus is extremely prevalent in person with Atopic dermatitis. It is mostly found in fertile active places, including the armpit hair and scalp. Large pimples that appear in those areas may exacerbate the infection of lacerated. This can lead to Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. A severe form of this Ritter’s disease; can be observed in neonates.

The presences of Staphylococcus aureus in persons with atopic dermatitis is not an indication to treat with oral antibiotics, as evidence has not shown this to give benefit to the patience. The relationship between Staphylococcus aureus and atopic dermatitis is unclear. Evidence shows that attempting to control Staphylococcus aureus with oral antibiotics is not efficacious.

Staphylococcus aureus can survive on dog, cat, and horses, and can cause bumble foot in chickens. Some believe health care workers dogs should be considered a significant sources of antibiotic – resistance Staphylococcus aureus is one of the casual agent of mastitis in dairy cows. Its large polysachainde capsule protects the organism from recognition by the cows immune defenses.

Staphylococcus aureus belong to the family Staphylococcaceae. It affects all known mammalian species, including human. Further due to its ability to effect wide range of species. Staphylococcus aureus can be readily transmitted from one species to another. This includes transmission between human and animals.

Staphylococcus aureus may commonly occur in the environment. Staphylococcus aureus is transmitted through air droplets or aerosol. When an infection person cough or sneezes, he or she releases numerous small droplets of saliva that remain suspended in air. These contain the bacterial and can infect others.

Another common method of transmission is through direct contact with objects that are contaminated by the bacterial or by the bites from infected person or animals. Approximately 30% of healthy humans carry Staphylococcus aureus in their nose, back of the throat and on their skin (Hubert 2000, Alylitte G.A.J 2001).

 

1.1    AIM OF THE STUDY

  • To isolate Staphylococcus aureus from wound infection.
  • To determine the antibacterial activity of three medicated soap on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infection.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF STUDY

Since Dorland (2003) stated that medicated soap have germicidal substances like chloroxylene pothaium, mercunic widede trichloro-carberilide etc incorporated into them in order to greatly their antibacterial activity. It is necessary to investigate the antibacterial activity of three medicated soap (Delta Soap, Tetmosol Soap and Detol Soap) on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infection.

 

1.3     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study is limited to three types of medicated soap which are:

  • Delta Soap
  • Tetmosol soap
  • Detol soap

 

 

 

1.4    SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The result of the project work will indicate the antibacterial activity of medicated. And if favourable, then medicated soap can be used for cleansing and washing the surface of minor wound for the application of further medication.

HOW TO ORDER FOR COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL


PAYMENT OPTION 1.

» Bank Branch Deposits, ATM/online transfers (Amount: ₦3,000 NGN)

Bank: FIRST BANK
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Account Number: 3116913871
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Amount: ₦3,000
AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992

Bank: HERITAGE BANK
Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE
Account Number: 1909068248
Account Type: SAVINGS
Amount: ₦3,000
AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992

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