AN APPRAISAL OF INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES AND PERSONNEL FOR TEACHING PHYSICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGER STATE (A CASE STUDY OF BOSSO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of content
Background to the study
Statement of the problem
Objective of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Definition of terms
Influence of Physical Facilities in teaching physics
Effect of Library Facilities in on students Performances
Influence of Personnel Facility in teaching physics
Assessment of Learning environment and effective teaching of Physics
Assessment of Learning resources on effective teaching of Physics
Effect of Teacher characteristics and the effective teaching of Physics
Assessment and effective teaching of Physics
Summary of Literature review
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Population of the study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Reliability of the instrument
Validity of the instrument
Method of data collection
Method of data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Analysis of research questions
Analysis of Research Hypothesis
Discussion of result
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary of findings
Limitation of the study
Suggestion for further research
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Background of the Study
The inclusion of physics in the senior secondary school curriculum and recent great emphasis on practical activities on the educational achievement of physics are connected with the various roles that physics as a subject plays in improving science and technology.
Physics is a branch of science that deals with nature and matter, their formation how they are formed under different conditions. It involves many other disciplines such as Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine and Agriculture. Since physics is the study of matter in relation to energy which is geared towards proving individuals for biological physics and chemical studies as professional in the nearest future it therefore should not be taught in abstract resulting to mere accumulation of theoretical knowledge, However, the physics teacher should enrich the teaching learning process with use of adequate relevant instructional resources so as to better actualize the laid down objectives for the importation of physics knowledge in order for the student to achieve their educational goal and objective and solve social, medical and agricultural problems.
Poor schooling has proved to be the greatest barrier to political, social and economic transformation in many African countries. School infrastructural facilities have been observed as a potent factor to quantitative education. The importance to teaching with provision of adequate instructional facilities for education cannot be over-emphasized. Pertaining to the teaching of physics in secondary schools, Infrastructural facilities include equipments and materials that are available to facilitate students learning outcome. It includes good buildings for classrooms and laboratories, laboratory equipments, experiment materials/apparatus, books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology; so also, size of classroom and laboratory, sitting position and arrangement, availability of tables, chairs, chalkboards, shelves on which instruments for practicals are arranged (Farrant, 1991 and Farombi, 1998).
According to Oni (1992), infrastructural facilities constitute a strategic factor in the functioning of a secondary school system. This is so because they determine to a very large extent the smooth functioning of any teaching and experimental demonstrations and even other extra-curricular activities. He further stated that their availability, adequacy and relevance influence efficiency and high performance. In his words, Farombi (1998) opined that the wealth of a nation or society could determine the quality of education in that land; emphasizing that a society that is wealthy will establish good schools with professional personnel (quality teachers), learning infrastructures that with such, students may learn with ease thus bringing about good academic achievement. Writing on the role of facilities in teaching, Balogun (1982) submitted that no effective science education programme including physics can exist without equipment for teaching. This is because facilities enable the learner to develop problem-solving skills and scientific attitudes. In their contribution, Ajayi and Ogunyemi (1990) reiterated that when facilities are provided to meet relative needs of a school system, students will not only have access to the reference materials mentioned by the teacher, but individual students will also learn at their own paces and there is room and necessary equipment for the teacher for further research and constant practice. The net effect of this is increased overall academic performance of the entire students.
In recent times, there has been a growing public anxiety about the poor performance of students in Physics in Nigerian schools. Studies showed that large numbers of students seem to learn very little physics at school, learning tends to be by rote and students find learning of Physics to be difficult (Salau, 2006). The quality of the personnels handling Physics in Nigerian schools has also been questioned over time by parents, science educators, and the general public and even by the government (Okebukola, 2007). Physics teaching in Nigerian schools has been criticized because of the poor performance of Nigerian students in Physics relative to their counterparts in other countries. This is evident from the Second International Science Study in which Nigerian students came second to last in secondary science among the participating countries of the world (STAN, 1992).
It is important to note at this point in time that the effect of practical activities on student performance in physics can be cause by non effective teaching of physics and learning. Akinpelumi (2001) defines teaching as a conscious effort on the part of an experienced person to import information knowledge and skill through communication to less experience person.
Farran (1982) says, there is a story relationship between the component of teaching learning and educational achievement process which involve the teacher, learner and the instructional materials. In this relationship, the teacher interacts with the learner and the institutional material at the same time for proper achievement of goal.
Since learning can be summarized as a process of a acquiring skill, subject matter, habit, altitudes perception interest, social adjustment and ideals. However Education is the total learning experience which one acquire under the guidance of an approved, trained, qualified and competent person which one function are performed excellently in the society which belongs. However instructional materials are tools or devices used for illustrating concept in a subject matter. They range from elementary devices to highly sophisticated machine specially design to help one of the ways by which the student can be encourage to perform well is by introducing practical activities through the use of appropriate learning resources. These include textbook, periodic charts, model, pictures and displays, computer and audiovisual materials.
Physics is a science subject that student often find very difficult and this is why student always have low achievement in the subject. According to Aina and Akintunde (2013) student usually performed very poorly in physics in all level of education. Many researchers have equally supported the view that students performed poorly in physics (Aigbomian, 2014; Uguanyi, 2014; Aiyelabegan, 2003; Akanbi, 2003). One major reason for this poor performance might not be separated from the abstract nature of the course as observed by Adeyemo (2010). The teaching of physics in schools has not been encouraging due to this abstract nature of the subject that is why the use of instructional materials is needed to facilitate students’ learning of physics. Oladejo, Olosunde, Ojebisi and Isola (2011) stressed that mastery of physics concepts cannot be fully achieved without the use of instructional materials. Another problem confronting teaching and learning of physics in Nigeria is the unavailability of these instructional materials in schools; therefore there is the need for improvisation. Aina (2012) said many of the equipment used in teaching physics can be improvised that is why physics teacher should endeavour to utilize the use of discarded resources around them to improvised teaching aids for physics. Instructional materials helps teacher to meet individual differences of the learners in the class by using aids that appeal to different senses (Morohunfola, 2013). Instructional materials are used to supplement verbal explanation of concepts or any description so that the lesson could be real to the students. These instructional materials are categorised into audio visual, audio and visual. These are materials that when teacher used them can appeal to student both sight and hearing. These can be electronically operated materials like Television, Radio, Film, Slide motion; Computer and non electronic ones such as Chalk board, Charts, Burners, Models and many more. The absence of these materials in teaching of physics could make the class very uninteresting to student and discourage learning thereby lead to low or poor achievement. Instructional materials are very important because what students hear can easily be forgotten but what they see cannot be easily forgotten and last longer in their memory. In contribution of Abimbola (1999) to the importance of instructional materials to teaching and learning process, he stressed that the primary purpose of instructional materials is to make learning more effective and also facilitate it. He averred further that teachers would not be able to do much where these materials are not available; therefore improvisation become necessary. Fakomogbon and Adegbija (2006) posited that instructional media or materials can be used by lecturers to overcome noise factors, such as misconception, referent confusion and daydreaming. In this age of Information and Communication Technology [ICT] teachers must be able to use available local resources to produce instructional and learning materials in schools (Daniel, 2001). As good as improvisation might be in teaching and learning if learners are not taken part in the process of improvisation its aim may not be fully achieved. Learner participating in improvisation of instructional materials makes them exposed to creativity, innovation and curiosity, all of which are fundamental to teaching and learning of science (Adeniran, 2006). Improvisation in science teaching is an important issue in science Education which has attracted a lot of contributions from science teachers (Fatubarin, 2001)
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The current situation of Physics teaching and learning in Nigeria is a concern to all including government and the society at large. Research indicates that many students found Physics as a subject to be difficult, boring and not interesting to them (Salau, 2006). Large class sizes, inadequate funding, insufficient curriculum resources, poor teaching skills and lack of supports for teachers among other factors further limit the quality of Physics teaching and learning in Nigerian schools (Okebukola, 2007). To solve these lingering problems one needs to develop a realistic picture of what is currently happening in the teaching and learning of Physics in Nigerian schools and also to identify the factors that are limiting the quality of personnel training. Furthermore, one needs to develop a reasonable ideal picture for which the nation can strive towards within the existing resource limitations.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives for this study:
- To examine if there is adequate infrastructural facilities for teaching Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.
- To examine the quality of personnel teaching Physics in Nigerian senior secondary schools.
- To identify the relationship between infrastructure and performance in Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.
- Are there adequate infrastructural facilities for teaching Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria?
- What is the quality of personnel teaching Physics in Nigerian senior secondary schools?
- What is the relationship between infrastructure and performance in Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
- The outcome of this study will educate stakeholders in the education sector and the general public on the state of infrastructural facilities and quality of personel available for the teaching of Physics in the Nigerian Senior secondary schools.
- This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will cover the level infrastructural facility and personnel available for teaching Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
The relevance of educational facilities, human and materials resources toward the achievement of education goals can not be over emphasized.
Provision of educational facilities makes learning in secondary schools more productive and meaningful. This is realized when there are qualified teachers to handle specific subject and availability of required equipment for the various science and technical subjects that makes education more practical and involves the student in applying their cognitive and psychomotor domains in their educational pursuit. Bamigbose (2015) submitted that educational facilities are usually designed, produced and used for the achievement of specific curriculum objective. Textbooks are meant to provide the basic information requirements of the courses for which they are prescribed, information considered important for student performance in secondary schools. Some material are designed and used to encourage and promote self instruction. Example of these are programme learning packaged or kits. There are material which attempt to widen the scope and understanding of the learner beyond the basic information need of the course. Again some facilities are designed and used to aid teachers. Such materials are used in most cases to explain, illustrate or elucidate teaching points. Others are of course used to arouse interest and to motivate learners. To have aspirator for good performances of students in secondary schools, there is need to establish clear guidelines for the selection of materials or facilities. According to Akinola (2007), he supported that the following general criteria have been found useful for this purpose.