assessment of kolanut marketing in Ekiti State Nigeria



1.1     Background to the Study

In Nigeria, cash crops (such as cocoa, kola nut, oil palm) and food crops (such as yam, cassava, maize) form the integral part of agricultural production. These products serve as food for man and raw materials for agro-allied industries both within and outside the country. They also provide revenue to farmers and generate foreign exchange to the government. The importance of kola-nut to the Nigerian economy cannot be overemphasized. The kolanut is used as a masticatory and stimulant in the tropics and has social and traditional significance as it features in many traditional ceremonies in Nigeria. The cTolanitidaand cola acuminatabeing the only two species widely exploited and cultivated are grown on large scale in Nigeria. Out of the two species, cola nitidais being traded internationally, while the consumption of cola acuminatais confined to southern Nigeria. There are three components of kola nut fruit (pods) which are: kola pods, kola husk and kola testa and nuts. Out of these four components only the nut has been found to be of high economic use, either in Nigeria or in the developed countries (Akinbode 1982).

Apart from the fact that it is widely consumed by virtually all categories of income groups, the commodity has been found to be useful in the production of beverages, flavouring material alkaloids, caffeine, theobromine, laxative, heart stimulant and sedatives. In addition, kola-nut husk which is a by-product of processing the seed is widely used for animal feeding because of its high nutritive quality and there was a report that there has been an outstanding growth performance and the apparent nutrient utilization of broilers fed with kola nut husk meal (Babatunde and Hamzat 2005). Kola nut could also be used in jam and jelly production because of the high pectin content. Also, due to the high potassium content of the kola nut testa, it has been suggested as a possible ingredient for making fertilizer (Olubamiwaet al 2002).

Prior to the colonization of most African countries, tree cropping was mainly undertaken by men folk. But studies, such as Pala (1976) and Martha (1982) have shown that colonial economy adversely affected traditional pattern of task allocation. The authors observe that the disruption of the pre-colonial division of labour between the sexes in rural communities, because of male migration many women will be found doing what was traditionally meant for men. Riley (1997) posits that in no society do men and women perform equal roles or hold equal position of power. It is also a known fact that both male and female members participate alongside in all farming activities, each having different but complementary responsibilities.

Kola nut serves as stimulant for the consumersand also for industrial uses as beverage andcough syrup made from its juice. Kola nut andkola by-products are noted for many industrialand domestic uses thereby contributingimmensely to local and foreign exchange earningof the country. The nuts are nutritious, containingnearly 1% protein, 1.35% fats and 45% starch.(Quarcoo2011). Kola nut is been used as analternative natural medicine in Europe andAmerica. It also has industrial usage for theproduction of drugs, soft drinks, wines, candies,beverages, animal feed formulation, liquid soap and dyes (Beattie, &Daramola 2011).Its chief constituents are caffeine, theobromine,tannins and phenolics, kolatin and kolanin. Kolanut has thermogenic and stimulant properties.

The high caffeine content acts as a powerfulstimulant, and it is said to create a feeling ofeuphoria. Tribal people of Africa chew thenut for stamina and to help ease hunger. It isoften offered as a gift to tribal leaders and visitors.

Several possible benefits of the kola nut and its products include the following:

Boost to metabolism: Kola nut products contain caffeine, which may give a person’s metabolism a boost; Aid to digestion: Kola nut powder and extract may help digestion. They are thought to promote the production of gastric acid, which increases digestive enzyme effectiveness in the stomach; Increase in circulation: The caffeine and theobromine in the kola nut may speed up the heart rate, which increases circulation; Boost to energy levels: The kola nut naturally stimulates the central nervous system, which may increase alertness and boost energy levels; Antibacterial benefits: One study reported in the Journal of Biosciences and Medicines indicates that the use of kola nut extract might stop the growth of harmful bacteria.

There are several health conditions that might be improved by consumption of the kola nut.

Prostate cancer: Although extensive studies have not been conducted, early research indicates that certain compounds found in the kola nut may decrease the risk of prostate cancer.

The research is still being debated, but it is thought that the phytoestrogens in kola nuts may kill cancer cells and stop tumors from growing.

Slow metabolism: People with a slow metabolism could benefit from using products that contain kola nut.Conditions that may affect a person’s metabolism include low testosterone, Graves’ disease, and Cushing syndrome.

Migraines: The kola nut may be helpful for people who have migraine headaches. Migraines often affect the blood vessels in the head and caffeine has been used for headache pain.

The theobromine and caffeine contained in the kola nut may dilate or widen blood vessels in the brain, which might decrease migraine pain.

The questions therefore are: Who does what in kolanut production and marketing activities in the household? What are the constraints militating against kolanut production?

Statement of the Problem

The advent of oil boom in the country in the mid 1970s resulted in the neglect of the agricultural sector with the government contributing little to nothing to the sector with decline in the GDP generated through agriculture from 56% between 1960 and 1969 to an average of 24% between 1970 and 1979, 22% in 1980 and a fluctuation between 16% and 24% between 1981 and 1985 (CBN/NISER, 1992). The trend in decline still continues till present as the bulk of the agricultural products consumed in the country are imported with little coming from the subsistence system of farming majorly practiced in the country. Also, Alademerin and Odusina (2009) in Makindeet al., (2013) reported that as Nigerian economy fortunes have turned in cycle, much attention is being paid to rehabilitation of estate plantation and the development of new ones, and that most estates plantations are being put up for outright sale or long management lease to private investors/enterprises.

This neglect culminates into scarcity of kola nut in the market as the production and supply has been inadequate. Considering this fact, there is no doubt that the potential uses and importance of kola nut can be both a saver and earner of considerable foreign exchange for Nigeria, more income for kola nut farmers and employment for the Nigeria youths.

More so, the production of Kola nut is influenced by soil fertility and the ability of any soil to replace nutrients absorbed by crops depend mainly on the clay type, mineral composition of the fine fraction and soil fraction in topo sequence. Aiboni and Ogunkunle (2012) have shown that the presence of weather able minerals in the fine sand fraction within 200cm of the profile is one of the conditions for high fertility of tropical soils.

Despite its endowment in soil resources suitable for kolanut production, as well as long history of kolanut production in Nigeria, Ekiti State has not been given due recognition. Kolanut farmers in the state have also been facing a number of challenges in term of production and marketing of kolanuts. According to Ajani (2012) the major problems of kola marketers were inadequate capital, poor storage facilities, and high cost of transportation, language barrier, inadequate supply of kola nut, poor market experience and other losses emanating from sprouting and theft. The existing transportation network, market information, storage, training among other factors remains unsatisfactory and does not facilitate effective distribution of kola to the wholesalers, retailers and consumers in the major areas especially at harvesting peak periods. Hence the question, what are the factors that affect kola nut marketing in the study area? Information on these factors will help in the understanding of the factors affecting kola nut marketing in the study area. This study therefore evaluates the  technical efficiency and marketing of kolanut in Ekiti State.

Research Questions

          The following research questions are raised for the purpose of this study

  1. i) what are the socio-economic characteristics of respondents;
  2. ii) what are the factor affecting the quality of kolanut trended by respondents

iii)     what is the marketing efficiency of respondents

  1. iv) what are the constraints militating against kolanut marketing


Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine assessment of kolanut marketing in Ekiti State NigeriaSpecifically, the study sought to:

  1. i) describe the socio-economic characteristics of respondents;
  2. ii) determine the factor affecting the quality of kolanut trended by respondents

iii)     examine the marketing efficiency of respondents

  1. iv) examine the constraints militating against kolanut marketing.

Research Questions

          The following research questions are raised for the purpose of this study

  1. i) what are the socio-economic characteristics of respondents;
  2. ii) what are the factor affecting the quality of kolanut trended by respondents

iii)     what is the marketing efficiency of respondents

  1. iv) what are the constraints militating against kolanut marketing


Justification of the Study

          This study is justified to the extent that kola nut is used to flavor sodas and as a supplement to increase energy or improve health. It was justify that the nut comes from the evergreen kola tree, which is found in the rainforests of Africa. Inside the tree’s star-shaped fruits are white shells, which contain the seeds or kola nuts.In Nigeria, it is an important cultural symbol for many ethnic groups. It is given to guests at weddings, funerals, and naming ceremonies, and it is used in medicine. Ceremonial breaking of the kola nut is important for making people feel welcome in a village or gathering.

It was recorded that that the kola nut has some reported benefits for health. The nut is relatively large, being about the size of a chestnut.The kola nut has a bitter taste but becomes sweeter, as it is chewed.The kola nut may be beneficial for certain health conditions.Whether taken in supplement form or chewed, kola nuts can have certain side effects.

Finally, the marketing of kola nut is very vital in the kola nut value chain. Kola nut is important for economic, social and traditional reasons, besides, it contributes to the foreign earnings of the country.

Organization of the Study

The present study has five chapters. The first Chapter provides a general background to the study, where among other things; it presents the problem statement, study objectives. The second Chapter presents a critical review of literature relevant to the study. A detailed description of the methodology employed, study area and the data used by the present study is provided in Chapter three. The fourth Chapter presents results and discussion. Main summary, recommendations and conclusion are provided in Chapter five of this research work.



Definition of Terms

  1. Kola nut:the seed of the cola tree, which contains caffeine and is chewed or made into a drink.

Marketing: the action or business of promoting and selling products or services, including market research and advertising

Production: the action of making or manufacturing from components or raw materials, or the process of being so manufactured.

Technical efficiency: Technical efficiency refers to how productive a business can be given the fewest inputs, or resources, necessary to do the job.




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Updated: June 20, 2019 — 5:43 am

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