CHAPTER ONE    INTRODUCTION                                                       

Background of the Study

Statement of the Problem

Purpose of the study

Significance of the study

Scope of the study


Research question

Definition of term

II                 REVIEW OF LITERATURE                                                           

III               METHODOLOGY                                                                              Research design

Population of the study

Sample of the study

Instrument for data collection

Validity and reliability of the instrument

Administration of the instrument/collection of data

Data analysis technique


IV               PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA                  





Limitations                                                                                                               REFERENCES                                                           






The overall purpose of this study is to investigate the cause of poor performance in junior secondary school in introductory technology subjects in Okitipupa Local Government Area of Ondo state. In order to accomplish the objective of the study, a number of research questions were put forward to guide the investigation. The population for the study consisted six secondary schools in Okitipupa Local Government Area of Ondo state and the sample of six (public) secondary schools while 60 students and 12 teachers were selected as respondents. Questionnaires were designed to elicit the predictive factors/performance of the students. The questionnaire were administered to the selected subjects from the junior secondary school class one (SSS1) and teachers of the subjects of six selected secondary schools. The data collected were analyzed. The results were discussed according to the research question of the study. The results/findings indicated that the respondents express both passive and remote cause that hinders the performance of the students in introductory technology. Based on the findings/results of the study, it is recommended that parents, teachers, government and organization should have roles to play to develop the students to enhance good performance in introductory technology subjects. This can be done through seminar workshop, campaigns and proper education implementation as well as, parents providing the opportunities for their children to live up to.




Background to the Study

The 6-3-3-4 system of education is a very important achievement for the nation, in the sense that young boys and girls would be able to undergo real functional education there by making them appreciate the dignity of technological inventions and development. Introductory technology is a core subject that prepares students for technological development and gives the individuals the experience of self-expression and self-fulfillment in technical subjects. The subject will also help to attract a number of youth who may develop much interest in their future pursuit of some scientific or technological inventions. A look at the introductory technology curriculum shows that its philosophy and objectives are inquiry oriented and advocates in technical institutions. This objective of the technical education are aimed at enabling the child who is exposed to technical education to acquire skills or inquiring skills as well as continuing the process of inquiring when new data do not conform to. (Federal Ministry of Education. FME (1981)).

Today, introductory technology serves as the technical subjects for beginner in our secondary schools and should therefore provide the learners with the strong foundation as an important spring board for other technical subjects. Furthermore, to realize these national objectives, a greater proportion of expenditures is devoted to science and technology experiments. If the components in the introductory technology which are the embodiment of Auto-mechanics, Basic electricity, Building construction, Metal work, and Wood work are engineering / technology career base at either the senior secondary school or university level. The teaching and learning of introductory technology can never be improved, if the teaching materials particularly the commonly available ones are not properly used. Various studies have confirmed that proper use of teaching materials will positively enhance teaching and learning process (Okebukola 2006, John Stone 2006, Es hint 2006).Many students from secondary school lack technical skill. This has resulted in their incomprehensive state of engineering contents and their inability to perform well in both the senior secondary certificate Examination (SSCE) in science and technical subjects and the junior secondary school certificate Examination (JSSCE). Many factors could have contributed to this conditions these include lack of workshop space and or facilities and insufficient teaching and learning of engineering technology materials.

Other factors that can affects the teaching and learning of introductory technology include both human and materials resources. Without human resources, teaching and learning will not take place effectively. Especially where the teachers must always be around to guide and direct students in the learning process. Interaction in technical classroom have always been a tripartite affairs between the teachers, the learners and materials. The three variables are expected to interact harmoniously in a way to produce the intended outcome on how to get students to concentrate, to invest more efforts and to take academic work seriously are challenges that teachers have to contend with. Student engagements characteristic, teacher characteristic and availability of learning materials, instructional strategies and assessment procedure are parameters that often attract the attention of researchers. There is also the assumption those classroom environments that promote cooperation and healthy competitions engender better performance. At times, there are indications, that all is not well with what goes on in our technical classroom. Hence there is repeated low level of performance and lack of interest in introductory technology subject among the students. If the students are presented with planned purposeful activities, the occurrence of negative conflicts such as students sleeping away, eating or playing with handset or staging a walk out of the class will be minimal, if not totally absent.

The result of this study could reveal that something must be wrong with one, two or all of the three components of the interaction. The fact is that the schools workshops are grossly. Inadequately to foster meaningful activities. The situations in the homes where the students come from are not better either. Bello (1994) reported the inability of the parents to purchase technical textbooks for their children, the lukewarm attitudes of parents to the school work of their children many of the children are sources of low income of the family. These also go to determine what life will be in the technical classroom. Even cases as glaring as students walking out of classroom during a lesson, refusal to write teachers given note when writing materials are available, loss of interest in classroom and inattentive were attributed to students home background. Perhaps if the parents are to do the same, they will rank teachers as the greatest causes of students poor performances. The question is what constitute all these in a situation where no one, the teachers, the parents, the government or the students is ready to pay the needed price. The teachers need sufficient resource to illustrate properly to students. Teachers can only achieve their aspirations, if enough resources for teaching and learning materials are available to them. Many schools especially in the rural areas lack workshop spaces and facilities and even the teachers. Technical teachers are told to improvise but have realized that he/she can not improvise everything and improvisation cost some money. Shortage of teaching resources in our school is not new and the practical work is now an exception rather than the rule in our teaching and learning process in science/technical education subjects.

Nigeria as a developing country that knows the importance of technical education and has therefore created another educational policy i.e 6-3-3-4 system of education but it is very unfortunate to discover that these changes in the educational programmes seem to be fruitless. This is due to the absence of a desirable attitudes towards technical subject among students which is confirmed in their notions that the study of Arts and social science subjects is economically viable than the real science/technical subjects. However, the poor performances of students have caused a lot of mixed feeling from eminent Nigerians as well as posing a threat to technological advancement of this country. Therefore the researcher can no longer resist the urge to take up this issue in order to identify the causes of failure or poor performance among students in teaching and learning of introductory technology subjects.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims at investigating the factors responsible for the poor performance of students in introductory technology in the junior secondary school certificate examinations in Okitipupa Local Government Area of Ondo State. Specifically, the study aims at findings the effects of the attitudes of students, teachers-students relationship, Government policy, teacher resources, parental motivation or home background on the performance of students in introductory technology.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of carrying out this research is to provide information to the agencies that are involved in technical education, the teachers, the parents, and the government. Such information will enable them make rational decisions about technical subjects especially introductory technology in this particular areas of the study.

Significance of the Study

The result of the study will be significant in a number of ways. It is hoped that the result will enlighten technical teachers and guidance/ counselors more on the attitudes of students to the subjects. It will also help the parents and teachers to be more alert to their responsibilities and show more interest/concern in the subjects so as to improve the performance of students in introductory technology. The result of this study will also help to educate the employers of teachers on the types of technical teachers. Based on their qualification that should be employed to teach introductory technology. Also, it is hoped that the results will enable the students that could offer technical subjects at the senior secondary school level to increase interest in the ways to help or achieve the nation’s educational objectives in order to improve our skills/inventions in the field of technical education and technology.


Scope of the Study

The study covers six secondary schools that offer introductory technology in Okitipupa Local Government Area of Ondo-State. It covers sixty (60) students and (12) twelve technical teachers in the selected secondary schools.

Research Questions

In order to accomplish the objectives of the study the following research questions are put forward, to guide the investigation.

  • What are the effects of Government policies implementation on the performance of the students in introductory technology in our school?
  • What is the effect of teaching resources on the performances of students in introductory technology?
  • What is the effect of parental motivation or home background on the performance of students in introductory technology?
  • What is the effect of the student’s attitude towards the study of introductory technology?
  • What is the effect of the teachers/students-relationship on the performance of students in introductory technology?

Definition of Terms

In order to ensure that the readers of the report/study are carried along the stream of thought, it is necessary to define a number of unfamiliar terms/word such as:-

  • Science:- The study of knowledge which can be made into a system and which usually depends on seeing and testing of facts and stating of natural laws.
  • Performance:- This means the academic achievement as expressed by scores on achievement test.
  • Technology:- Study of the application of scientific discoveries.
  • Attitude:- The manner or teaching towards the teaching or both of integrated science, that is feelings towards the subject.
  • National Business and Technical Examination Board:- (NABTED). This is examinations to general education and all vocational trades in the technical college nation wide at the end of the three years programmes.
  • Technical colleges:- These are mostly schools designated as senior secondary schools offering mainly, and in most cases, only technical education subjects. They also train students in the skills that make them craft man or master craftsman that are courses offered in vocational education.
  • Vocational education:- This is defined as vocational or technical training or retraining which is designed to prepare individuals for gainful employment as semi-skills or skilled workers or technicians or sub-professionals in recognized occupations (encyclopedias of Education 1996.)





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