CONSTRAINTS TO EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF TECHNICAL SUBJECTS IN EKITI SOUTH WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE
The study examined constraints to effective teaching and learning of technical subjects, in Ekiti South West Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The research design used for this work was descriptive research of the survey type. One hundred and twenty(120) students were drawn from Technical School Igbara Odo, Ekiti State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select equal number of male and female students. The data collected through the questionnaire were analysed using frequency counts and simple percentages.
Results showed that poor equipment affect teaching and learning of technical subjects, lack of laboratories leads to production of half baked graduates, inadequacy of teaching laboratory and work shop facilities contribute to poor technicians, the use of outdated equipment has also reduced the knowledge of students in technical subjects. Result also showed that most people see technical education as waste of time, as they believe that technical subjects are meant for the less privileged. This perception of technical subjects by the people cause low enrolment of students for technical subjects. The result of the study also showed that respondents see technical education students as apprentices and this has affected the teaching and learning of technical subjects.
The study concluded that inadequate funding of technical education has caused the turn-out of half-baked technical college graduates because there is poor funding to build and maintain workshops, laboratories or even purchase modern equipments. Staffing of technical education is also inadequate as experienced and skillful teachers may not be employed. Those that are employed, because of poor remuneration do not stay long in the teaching profession, but drift to some other more lucrative jobs especially in the industries and abroad.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made; for progress to be made in the Nigerian Technical Education Program, the challenges identified as confronting technical education must be recognized and addressed vigorously. Adequate resources should be allocated to the programme in order to achieve positive outcomes. Adequate and updated facilities should be made available to all schools for effective teaching and learning of technical subjects, trained and qualified teachers should be recruited, salaries of teachers should be paid as at and when due.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 8
Purpose of the Study 9
Research Questions 10
Significance of the Study 11
Delimitation of the Study 12
Definition of Terms 12
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Technical Education 13
Teaching and Learning of Technical Education 17
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Technical Education 19
Skills in Technical Education 21
Technical Education and School Reform in the year 2008 23
Technical design and creativity – the Fundamentals of Technical Education 27
Benefit of Teaching and Learning Technical Education 29
Major Constraint in Technical Education 30
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Research Design 41
Sample and Sampling Techniques 41
Research Instrument 41
Validity of Instrument 42
Reliability of Instrument 42
Administration of the Instrument 42
Data Analysis 43
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Background to the Study
Technical education is the training of technically oriented personnel who are to be the initiators, facilitators and implementers of technological development of a nation by adequately training its citizenry on the need to be technologically literate, leading to self-reliance and sustainability Uwaifo (2009). Technical education more than any other profession, has more direct impact on national welfare. Technical education contributions are widespread and visible ranging from metalwork technology, mechanical/ automobile technology, electrical and electronic technology, building and woodwork technology etc.
Technical education is defined by Encyclopaedia Britannica as “the academic and vocational training of students for jobs involving applied science and modern technology”. Technical education focuses more on the understanding and practical application of the basic principles of science and mathematics.
Effective teaching may include high level of creativity in analyzing, synthesizing and presenting knowledge in new and effective ways. It should instill in the students’ the ability to be analytical, intellectually curious, culturally aware, employable, and capable of leadership (Okolie, 2014).
Teaching is an art and the equality of teaching depends on the love, dedication and devotion of the teacher towards the subject of the knowledge. The quality of any teaching program cannot rise above the quality of teachers, teaching is a highly individualized activity, and the student-teacher interaction is an intense human relationship that encompasses a broad range of personalities and behaviors (Okolie, 2014). There is no best or most effective teaching style, which will work well for all teachers. Many new teachers attempt to initiate the style of a favorite teacher from the past, but the most successful style is those that develop as naturally as possible from a teacher’s own personal characteristics. The most effective teaching style for a teacher will be one that reflects a combination of sound teaching techniques, knowledge of the subject, enthusiasm for teaching and sensitivity to another’s personal characteristics. Whatever style a teacher adopts, he/she can generally perform in a more relaxed manner if he/she simply maximizes his/her own best personality traits. In general, if a teacher comes across his/her students as a caring person, their appreciation for the teacher’s personal sincerity will enhance their impression about the teacher.
The teaching and learning of technical education is designed to equip students with the real life skills to enable them to apply the theoretical knowledge that they have acquired in the real world. Technical education trains people to acquire skills in diverse skill set, which include engineering, computing, agriculture, health care, law, business administration, environmental sciences, project management, and a host of other areas.
Technical education is designed to offer people the opportunity of improving themselves in their general proficiency, especially in relation to their present or future occupation. Nuru (2007) opined that changes in any nation’s economy is required to prepare young people for the jobs of the future of which technical education have crucial roles to play. May (2007) observed that technical education are very much still neglected in the aspect of adequate funding, personnel, modern facilities, staff motivation which consequently are robbing the country of the economic development to be contributed by graduates of technical education. Asogwa and Diogu (2007) maintained that there is an urgent need for the Nigeria’s attention to be redirected towards self-reliant and sustainable means of livelihood which technical education provides.
Teaching and learning strategies are traditionally referred to as methods of teaching (Kisirikoi, Wachira and Malusu, 2008). Modern trends in teaching emphasize certain approaches which determine the strategy to be used. These approaches include; interaction approach, collaborative approach, transmission approach, experiential approach and facilitation approach. Interaction approach is where there is exchange of ideas between the teacher and the learner or among learners themselves as in group work. Collaborative approach is where learners share ideas in groups or projects. Transmission approach, the teacher dominates the lesson by use of lecture. In experiential approach learners life experiences are explored and used as a basis for development of new knowledge and passing judgment. Learning is based on the learner’s experiences in the community. Facilitation approach teacher provides the stimulus for the learners’ interaction with new knowledge and also provides opportunities for the learners to learn. The teacher is merely a guide and director of learning. From the above approaches the technical teacher determines the strategy to use depending on the content he is teaching the learners. The most used strategies in teaching technical education are, lectures, practical, demonstrations, discussion, educational visits, projects, question and answers, and assignments (Vandenbosch, 2006).
Teaching and learning resources are all materials and equipment used to enhance effective learning (Kisirikoi and Malusu, 2008). A teacher selects develops and reorganizes teaching – learning resources for effective teaching. A teacher is therefore the most important teaching – learning resource. According to Johnson (2008) having satisfactory facilities equipments and materials should not be minimized in establishing the curriculum because of their contribution to the effectiveness of the school. Their availability will enhance or inhibit the implementation of curriculum. It then follows that facilities, equipments and materials influence the implementation of secondary technical education curriculum. Because of the development in modern technology, teachers no longer have to rely solely on words to make their meanings clear. There is great variety of materials around that can be used to make meaning more vivid and more interesting. These materials are the teaching and learning resources.
Leaning styles of students have been found to influence the educational process and student’s opportunity to learn (Claxton and Murell, 2007). Researchers have suggested that learning style is influential in students’ academic choices. Schroeder (2013) acknowledged that accommodating variations in learning styles cared improve curricular and the teaching- learning process in high school education.
Most analysts agree that employers of labour today demand more skills than they did in the past (Yang,2008). Oranu (2010) also observed that there are many factors that have contributed to the ever rising demand for skills in the labour market which include the following; technological and organizational change, trade, deregulation of key industries and the decline of unions.
Consequently, Technical education can serve as change agents not only for technical systems but also for many other societal changes. The practical nature of Technical education makes it unique in content and approach, thereby requiring special care and attention. The inputs of Technical education are so visible to the extent that even an illiterate could see when ‘failures’ occur.
Technologists are supposed to solve societal problems in sustainable ways. For them to do so, they need to be sufficiently informed in technical education concepts and its application of its theoretical principles to practical problems. The desire of the stakeholders to achieve this has been met by lots of challenges. Our inability to tackle the challenges over the years in Nigeria has put us at a low level in technology and has perpetually made Nigeria a developing nation. The difference between developed, developing and undeveloped countries rests on the ability of the developed countries to convert scientific ideas to useable technology while the developing and underdeveloped countries are yet to effectively do so.
Some of the problems affecting the teaching and learning of technical education are inadequate funding, facilities and problem of government policy.
Inadequate funding of vocational institutions has caused the turning out of half-baked graduates because there is no fund to build and maintain workshops, laboratories or even purchase modern equipments (Aghenta, 1985). Staffing of Vocational technical education is generally inadequate because of poor funding. Experienced and skillful teachers may not be employed. Those that are employed, because of poor remuneration do not stay long in the teaching profession, but drift to some other more lucrative jobs especially in the industries and abroad. Consequently, inexperienced and unqualified technical teachers are employed thereby lowering academic standard, resulting to wastage in the achievement of technical education goals (Agbionu, 2003
Lack of facilities is another constraint affecting the teaching and learning of technical education. Most technical education departments in Nigeria schools do not have laboratories or workshop space let alone usable equipment and facilities and where they exist, they are grossly inadequate, as the laboratories only have the items or equipment that were provided when the departments were established. It is however most surprising to know that most technical education departments still depends on engineering workshop and lecturers to teach technical education concepts in this 21st century. This is a total shame and a high degree of irresponsibility on the part of the operators of this programme. The inadequacy in teaching, laboratory and workshop facilities has contributed to the reduction of the quality of technical education in Nigeria.
Government policy has constituted a problem to technical education. Education generally, including technical education programme has been grossly neglected in Nigeria. Technical educators have the greatest challenge of convincing the law makers on why the law makers should give priority to the programme in allocating resources. Many options of getting positive results have been advocated at different forum, namely, lobbying, participation of technical educators in governance, wooing, etc. Yet the government is playing a lopsided attitude to the proper development of the programme in Nigeria. Anyway, let it be made loud and clear that until they begin to change their attitude towards the programme, Nigeria will ever remain a technologically backward and dependent nation.
Unfortunately, despite all the glaring contributions of technical education in our nation, Nigeria is yet to accord this type of education the attention it deserves. This is one of the major reasons for the rising unemployment, poverty and unabated crimes in the society today. It is on this background this research work examine the constraints of effective teaching and learning of technical education in Ekiti SouthWest Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Statement of Problems
Too much emphasis on University education in Nigeria has always affected the respect for economic opportunities of those who are more disposed to blue collar jobs than academics just as inadequate funding of technical institutions has resulted in the turning out of half-baked technical graduates. In consequence, there is no fund to build and maintain workshops, laboratories and other modern equipments. Staffing of the technical schools is generally inadequate because of poor funding. Experienced and skillful teachers may not be employed. Those that are employed, because of poor remuneration do not stay long in the teaching profession, but drift to some other more lucrative jobs especially in the industries and abroad.
Most technical education secondary schools do not have laboratories or workshop space let alone usable equipment and facilities; where they exist, they are grossly inadequate.
Technical education programme has been grossly neglected in Nigeria and Technical educators have the greatest challenge of convincing the law makers on why the law makers should give priority to the programme in allocating resources.
The movement of lecturers of technical education which are needed for the socio-economic and technological advancement of Nigeria from one school to other schools or to other professions (including politics) calling for better conditions of service.
Lack of staff training and re-training:The training of academic staff is ordinarily a continuous exercise to ensure consistent improvement in the quality of their outputs. The training is in two-fold: training to acquire minimum qualification to teach and continued professional training. Both types of training can be acquired either locally or overseas. Overseas training requires a lot of foreign exchange but the enabling environment exists to achieve success in a record time. However, over time it has always been difficult to get the trainees back to their respective countries after the completion of their study.
Most people see technical education as a waste of time and resources allotted people prefers to go to universities to study others courses . Some people believe technical education is meant for who do not have money to further their education.
This study will therefore examine the constraint of effective teaching and learning of technical education.
Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to identify the constraints of effective teaching and learning of technical subject in Ekiti South West Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Precisely, the research is designed to
- Find out whether unavailability of equipment and non-functional workshop really hinder the progress of technical education in Ekiti South West Local Government Area of Ekiti State
- Find out the level which poor societal attitude has developed a problem that hinder the progress of technical education in Ekiti South West Local Government Area of Ekiti State
iii. Find out the extent to which inadequate funding constituted a problem to the development of technical education in study area.
- It also intend to find out the degree to which government policy has constituted a problem to technical education in Ekiti South West Local Government Area of Ekiti State
The following research questions were raised;
- Does inadequate equipment and workshop material constitute a problems to effective teaching and learning of technical education in Ekiti South West Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
- Does poor societal attitude constituted a problem to effective teaching and learning of technical education in Ekiti South West Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
iii. Does inadequate funding translate into a problem of effective teaching and learning of technical education in Ekiti South West Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
- Does inadequate technical teachers constitute a problem to effective teaching and learning of technical education in Ekiti South West Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
- Do government policies and programmes develop a problems to effective teaching and learning of technical education in Ekiti South West Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
Significance of Study
The findings of this research will promote positive attitude towards technical education in Ekiti South West Local Government Area of Ekiti State. It will also make the society to appreciate the roles of technical education in nation’s building or economic development of the country particularly in Ekiti state.
The study would be of benefit to the students because it widen the knowledge of student on the concept of technical education and the problem affecting the teaching and learning of technical education.
The study would educate parent on the importance of technical education. The study would also add to the exiting literature and serve as guide to researchers who may want to carry out research on related topic.
The study would educate policy makers on why the law makers should give priority to the programme in allocating resources to technical education.
Finally the researchers will make lecturers and students of technical education to see constraint of effective teaching and learning of technical education progress and equally find solution to the problem.
Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited to examine the effective teaching and learning of technical education in Ekiti South West Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The study will consider in Ekiit South West Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Definition of Terms
Constraints: A limitation or restriction to effective teaching and learning
Leaning: The acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught.
Teaching: Teaching is the process of attending to people’s needs, experiences and feelings, and intervening so that they learn particular things, and go beyond the given.
Technical Education: Is a term applied to schools, institutions, and educational programs that specialize in the skilled trades, applied sciences, modern technologies, and career preparation.
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