1.1. Background of the study
Industrialization has a significant role in economic development of a country. It is seen as a motor behind many of the changes usually termed ―social transformation‖ and ―modernization‖, (UNIDO, 2003). From this point of view, the following features can be isolated as the important characteristics of industrializations: first, it is not a one time or sudden occurrence but rather a sustained process; second, it brings about structural changes or transformations of national economy, especially, in the composition and the pattern of employment; and third, it requires the application of modern science and technology to the production process. It is, therefore, an inescapable part of the process of change for the improvement of the development of a nation.
Industries extract materials from the natural resources and release both products and wastes into the environment. These wastes/ pollutants take on many faces. They contaminate many sources of drinking water, released unwanted toxins into the air and reduce the quality of soil. Major environmental disasters have been caused due to industrial mishaps, which have yet to be brought under control. There are many different factors that comprise of the issue of industrial pollution. Major environmental disasters have been caused due to industrial mishaps, which have yet to be brought under control (Conserve energy future, 2014).
Today there is a competition between nations, especially developing countries to enhance industrialization in their country. The motto behind this notion is the belief that it is only through industrialization that economic growth can be achieved (UNIDO, 2003). Industrialization is more essential to provide more employment to the labor force.
The rapid economic growth achieved by developing countries after [industrial expansion]
has adversely affected the quality of the environment, imposed considerable social costs and livelihood impacts, and has become a major threat to sustainable development (Nelliyat, 2007). Most of these countries take up export oriented manufacturing which is sometimes pollution intensive. It is extremely important for developing countries to achieve a critical level of economic growth to mitigate their unemployment and poverty. But the major challenge is to ensure development in an environmentally sustainable manner, so far to achieve a proper trade-off between environment and development (Nelliyat, 2007).
The idea of sustainable development urges every socioeconomic activity of a nation to have an environmental consideration. Unfortunately, in most developing countries including Ethiopia, this has not been the concern of the government in its economic progress endeavor until recently (Abdulshikur, 2007). As a result most industries have been involved one way or another in deteriorating the environment, particularly the quality of water bodies.
Although progress has been made and environmental issues are stated as priority in many policies, there is lack of implementation, and enforcement needs to be strengthened. Increasing economic growth and attaining middle-income country status by 2025 might result in improvements for some environmental problems but might increase pressure on some resources (such as water) and increase emissions of some pollutants, typically those linked with industrial production. Furthermore, environmental degradation and climate change hampers Ethiopia‘s economic growth. To reach its vision, Ethiopia needs to speed up mainstreaming of environmental issues and institutions need to be strengthened to attain sustainable development and a green economy (César and Ekbom, 2013).
Industries and government have tried to address industrial pollution concerns with the ―end-of-pipe‖ approach, which involves the construction of waste treatment facilities (Getachew, 2006). This approach, however, does not completely eliminate the waste other than its economic implications. Generation of waste implies a loss of resources, hence, a loss of production opportunity and profitability. The pollution prevention or waste minimization concept, however, emphasizes the prevention or reduction of waste at the source and is therefore, inherently linked with increased productivity and profitability along with environmental benefits. But not all waste can be prevented and waste that is generated must be adequately treated to minimize its impact on the environment. Accordingly, the ―optimal approach‖ to industrial waste management is a combination of both pollution prevention and end-of-pipe treatment.
1.2. Problem statement
The impact of environmental problems on human health and damage to local resources and ecosystem is far more serious in the cities of developing world nowadays than in the cities in Europe, Japan and North America (Dierig, 1999). Africa currently shows the most explosive urban growth. The process of urbanization and industrialization is [..] with severe increase of environmental ills (Dierig, 1999). Government in industrial nations insist on high environmental standards; they scrutinize industrial operations (Girma, 2004). However, this is not the case in developing countries like Nigeria
With a rapidly expanding population and a growing trend of industrial development, problems related to the management of industrial waste have become a growing threat in nigeria. The problem is more severe in Oyo state, where most (More than 40% of large and medium scale manufacturing industries are located .
As the Nigeria economy grows through expansion of industrial sector, pollution poses an increasingly serious problem for both the environment and urban community and its surroundings
Most industries need ample amounts of water and a place to discharge their liquids and solid wastes. It is thus no coincidence that most of the industries in oyo state and other urban areas are located near or along water ways. Those industries that are located close to the rivers discharge their liquid waste directly into the rivers. Others that are a little farther away from the rivers discharge their effluents into nearby open ditches or municipal drainage that are finally end up in city rivers. Still others that are located nowhere near water ways dispose their waste in nearby open space
Besides this, inadequate municipal and industrial solid waste collection and disposal creates a range of environmental problems in Oyo state. A considerable amount of waste ends up in open dumps or drainage system, threatening both surface water and ground water quality and which provides a breeding ground for disease carrying pests. Even though the case is this, a variety of vegetables have been produced within and around the city, mainly using the water from the polluted water, and the irrigation is carried out informally by small holders without conventional irrigation infrastructure. Even if there are laws and regulations at federal and regional levels, unfortunately, their implementation and enforcement mechanisms on pollution and control are very weak while the problem could be serious for human health because industrial wastes can pose potential threats to human and ecological health if not properly managed. The concerns range from toxic effects on fetuses and children to the health implications of low-level exposures to multiple pollutants and the degradation of habitats and ecosystems.
In light of the above discussion industrial pollution has become a serious problem in the city, and is expected to be source of pollution for the future as the country is on the path towards industrial growth. Thus, undertaking research on industrial wastes and its related impact on human health has a paramount importance. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the actual peculiar health problems of industrial wastes and expose it to policy makers, and increase its understanding and enhance the coping mechanisms in the study area.
To the researcher‘s knowledge, there is no research done on the particular topic selected. Research done in the past has focused on exploring/discussing the effects of the processes of industrial wastes on the physical environment such as water bodies and the pollution effects of manufacturing industries on the physical environment. These researches have neglected the direct effects of such industries on the vulnerable communities residing around the different industries, especially manufacturing industries. This present research, however, tried to address this issue.
1.3. Research questions
This study is done to give answers for the following questions:
- To what extent do the industrial wastes affect the health of the residents?
- What health problems do frequently happen in the area due to the pollution?
- Which sections of the society are more affected by the health problems caused by industrial wastes?
- What does industrial waste management trend look like?
- Are there necessary intervention mechanisms to protect health of the community?
- What measures should be taken to solve the problems?
1.4. Objectives of the study
In light of the above mentioned problems, the primary objective of the study is to assess and analyze the Effect of industrial wastes on residents in Oyo state
The specific objectives of this study are:
- To assess the prevalent health problems of people around the area
- To investigate the perceived and actual health implications of industrial wastes on the residents of the area
- To identify the sections of the society mostly vulnerable to health impacts and why?
- To assess intervention mechanisms to protect the health of the community
- To assess and analyze the current status of industrial waste management practices
- Suggest the necessary recommendations for future action.
1.5. Significance of the study
The federal government is working on industry to take over agriculture and take the lion‘s share of the economy. FDI is also being attracted especially in some export oriented industries. This as a result is expected to increase the amount of wastes disposed to the environment due to industrial growth. Most industries are located in Oyo state. Therefore, the result of the study will enable policy makers and other concerned bodies to have information on how to proactively control and take precautionary measures on such emissions.
The findings will also inform policy makers about the importance of creating environmental orientation among citizens and companies in the course of the intended rapid industrialization. Although, environmental protection is a recent phenomena that has emerged in the past few decades and could hopefully be a major focus in the future, through proper educational and social awareness means the government can make better use of legal and economic framework for environmental protection at individual level to advance its citizens ―environmental consciousness and achieve more sustainable national development‖.
1.6. Scope of the study
This study is undertaken in the Oyo State. The target population for this study were AIZ residents. AIZ is selected due to the fact that it is the largest industrial zone and large amount of waste producer in Oyo State.
Only medium and large scale industries are taken into consideration as such industries significantly contribute to environmental pollution by producing large amount of wastes. Of many industries, those which include metal manufacturing, paint formulates, plastic industry, leather products manufacturing, textile factories and food processing industries are considered as pollutant and hazardous