THE EFFECT OF TEACHER -PUPIL RELATIONSHIP ON STUDENTS POOR ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY
Background to the study
Teaching is a unique and dynamic profession. What a nation becomes is dependent on the type and quality of her teachers. As the school is the mirror of society and an agent of social change, teaching becomes a process and an instrument of nation building. In education, the classroom teacher is accountable for the destiny of the nation because there is a strong tie between his instructional activities, the eventual outcome of his instruction and the development or otherwise of the nation. Since the inference of teachers’ action has multiplying effects on the destiny of person, groups and nations, teaching becomes an overwhelming responsibility and a ‘task’ word.
Biology as a branch of science plays a vital role in providing knowledge of relevant concepts, scientific skills, environment and natural phenomena. It helps to develop science process skills and scientific attitude. Education on the other hand is a designed process for training an individual by which knowledge is acquired (Eya, 2010). He opined that it is a vital developmental process which is directly related to the effectiveness of trained manpower. Biology Education is a process of imparting knowledge, skills and attitudes in Biology to a learners at any level. It gives the learner a sound academic knowledge, skills and ample opportunity to apply this knowledge. According to Okenyi (2012), Biology Education is an application of principles of education in teaching and learning of Biology. It is also the act of teaching and training in order to inculcate or transfer the knowledge of Biology to students
Biology is the study of natural phenomena and environment which results from curiosity oj man (Nlewem, 2005). Biology is also a branch of science which has been structured to equip the students with the knowledge of relevant concepts and scientific skills (Adepoju (2016). Biology is all the knowledge of living things that has come to us from the past. It is therefore the science of life. Biology education is the act of teaching and learning in order to inculcate or transfer the knowledge of Biology to the student (Okenyi, 2012). Educating people in science especially Biology has been widely acknowledged as a way of promoting economic development, eliminating poverty and introducing social welfare (Nwagbo, 2005).
Over the years, science education in Nigeria has faced various Problems. The school curriculum offers a child-centered teaching-learning approach as students are encouraged to take up the science related subjects including biology, which occupies a unique position in the school curriculum and is central to many science related courses (Aina 2012). In Nigeria, the inclusion of science subjects in the school curriculum is to promote national development as the nation adopts more science oriented policies and programmes in education (Oriahi et al., 2010). Poor performance of students is mainly due to lack of motivation for teachers; poor infrastructural facilities; attitude of students to learning; lack of teaching skills and competence by science teachers; and lack of opportunities for professional development of science teachers (Braimoh and Okadeyi, 2001; Olaleye, 2002). Other factors include syllabus, teacher’s qualifications, workload, experience and disposition, general lack of teaching skills and ineffective style of delivery of subject matter are also identified as some of the causes (Adepoju, 2016; Salau, 2016). Scientific issues involve the teaching of biological concepts through technology so as to develop science through interesting contexts. The inclusion of science-technology-society (S-T-S) issues in the school curriculum (Osborne and Collins, 2000) will achieve the engagement of students in problem solving activities. Ideal teaching refers to the teaching and learning process as it is expected to take place in a classroom in an ideal situation. Actual teaching is the teaching and learning process that actually takes place in the classroom in relation to the prevailing academic and environmental conditions. Quality teaching is the process of continuously improving teaching and learning in order to bring desirable education goals in the school system. It is the principal measure of the effectiveness of education and the most attribute to suffer. Teaching and learning are improved continuously and maintained to bring the desired goals (Aminu, 2015). Quality teaching in biology is crucial for developing scientifically literate citizens and improving economic productivity for sustainable development. It enhances students achievement and strengthens public confidence in schools. Quality teaching helps students to attain a deep conceptual understanding (AAAS, 1989). Quality teaching is characterized by an adequate knowledge of subject matter; encouraging inquiry and hands-on approach to learning for students; and recognizing individual students as learners as the teacher builds on learner’s strengths rather than trying to stamp out their weaknesses. Quality teaching helps teachers to focus on the educational improvement of learners through the integration of adequate knowledge of the curriculum content areas, functional pedagogic skills, critical reflective teaching, empathy and commitment to the educational process and the acquisition of managerial competencies within and outside the school context. Quality teachers of biology are knowledgeable about biology, learning and science teaching and they create an environment in which students are regarded and treated as active learners. Teaching and learning of biology involves teachers’ knowledge of subject matter and teaching pedagogy (Ball and McDiarmids, 2010).
In a nutshell, Children engage in many important social relationships that are also influential within the school context. Such relationships include those with their peers and with teachers. Studies indicate that these relationships influence performance with various school domains including social, academic and behavioral arenas (Graziano et al. 2007; Whitaker, 2004). Reavis et al. (2007) argue that one of the most important indicators of a student’s success in school is his/her ability to learn, process and retain information taught in the classroom (what is referred to as academic success). It is widely acknowledged that early contributors to student academic outcomes are important since early academic achievement has repercussions on later development including later academic success and achievement as well as potential career opportunities.
A large number of research studies demonstrate that teachers can motivate their students to perform well in the classroom if they take time to build relationships and interact with the students (Diedrich, 2010). Further research also indicates that teachers must also strongly believe that building relationships is essential to the motivation process (Whitaker, 2004). This author emphasizes on the need to capitalize on these beliefs as a way of enhancing student academic achievement.
Although study findings demonstrate that teacher-to-student interactions impact on student academic achievement, many parents do not appreciate close teacher-to-student relationship as necessary. Most argue that an effective curriculum is what matters to the success of their children. Studies however show that for students to effectively learn and retain what is offered by an effective curriculum they must get support from their teachers and this is only possible if they interact and build positive relationships with the teachers. In this era that is characterized by accountability and high stakes testing for both teachers and students, it is imperative to explore evidence to establish if teacher-to-student relationships are indeed a factor in enhancing student academic achievement. Supporters of the No Child left Behind ACT (NCLB) argue that the most effective way of improving student achievement is to emphasize on test scores. Nevertheless, learning is a continuous process where cognitive as well as social psychological dimensions are involved, and both processes must be considered for academic achievement to be fully attained.
There is need for research to extend examination of variables to include investigating the factors that affect students’ attitudes towards school as well as the interactions and relationships they form with teachers. This is important for two reasons, one, if students like going to school, they will benefit from important social advantages including building friendships, learning social skills, and gaining respect for adults as well as their peers. Second, liking school will enhance their academic performance (Halliman, 2008). Pianta and Stuhlman (2004) argue that regardless of whether teacher-to-student relationship is close and positive or fraught with conflict that relationship has been found to contribute to, as well as be an indicator for student adjustment to school as well as academic performance. Recent reports in the United States also indicate that there is low motivation level among students in most schools, particularly high school.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The school system generally in Ekiti State has seen associated with poor academic performance, formation of bad gangs by pupils, perpetual hatred to teachers, neglect of some subjects which then gave rise to serious problems for the realization of educational objectives. It is unfortunate that a good number of pupils have lost virtues of good behaviour since their teachers did no longer show the love, care and affection.
In the sight of the above problems, the researcher therefore intend to carry out this study in order to emerge with some empirical data relating to the extent to which poor teacher – pupil relationship has contributed to the non effective academic achievement of biology students in IKERE Local Government.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to find out the extent the effect of poor teacher – pupil relationship on the academic achievement of biology students in Ikere local Government.
Specially, the study intends to find out.
- The extent to which students relationship with their biology teacher affect their performance in the subject.
- The extent to which biology students communicate with their biology teachers in the classroom.
- The extent to which biology teachers attitude towards teaching of biology have effect on students academic performance in the school
- The extent to which biology teachers method of teaching affect student poor academic performance
The following questions where formulated to guide the study
- To what extent does biology students relationship with their biology teachers affect their academic achievement in the subject?
- What impact does teachers’ friendliness have on student academic performance.
- Does biology students communicate with their biology teachers in the classroom affect their academic achievement?
- Does biology teachers attitude towards teaching of biology have effect on students academic performance in the school?
- Does biology teachers method adopted in teaching affect students poor performance of students in biology?
The following null hypothesis will be raised and tested at 0.05 level of significant
- There is no significant relationship between students relationship with their biolody teachers and their academic achievement
- Teachers friendliness does not have significant effect on students poor academic achievement
- There is no significant relationship between students communication with their biology teachers in classroom and their academic performance
- There is no significant difference on biology teachers attitude and biology students academic performance
- There is no significant difference on teachers method of teaching and students poor academic achievement
Significance Of The Study
This research work is being carried out to investigate the effect of poor teacher – pupils relationship on academic achievement of biology students in Ikere Local Government Area. The work will go along way in helping all state holders of education which includes teachers, pupils, parents and the entire system of education.
The researcher’s work will be of benefit to the teachers as it will serve as sense of direction to them by helping them to understand and know the reason why children perform blow standard, academically in IKERE. Also the work will be of benefit to pupils as they acquire more knowledge which thereby changes the academic achievement from negative to positive based on the improvement in their relationship with them. In the case of ministry of education, they will benefit from their names being gazette in their magazine having recognized them for excellence. The ministry of education may as well give them grants to maintain the schools in all activities such as sports and other equipment required; thereby the schools would be a liability.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY