THE EFFECT OF TEACHERS QUALIFICATION ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS
Background of the Study
The quality of education of a nation could be determined by the quality of her teachers (Abe 2014). The most important factor in improving students’ achievement is by employing seasoned qualified teachers in all schools
(Abe and Adu, 2013). Okuruwa (2008) found that, policy investment on quality of teachers is related to improvement in students’ performance. Specifically, the measurement of teacher’s preparation and certification are correlates of students’ achievement in science (Abe 2014). It is further reported that, teacher’s characteristics such as certification status and degree in area of specialization are very significant and positively correlated with students learning outcomes.
Studies have revealed that poor quality of teachers is a strong factor responsible for the dwindling standard of education in Nigeria. Research also indicates that the achievement gap widens each year between students with most effective teachers and those with least effective teachers (Salman, 2009). This implies that the most significant gains in student achievement will likely be realized when students receive instruction from well qualified and experienced teachers over consecutive years. Although teachers’ academic degrees and their average years of experience have been traditional indicators of the qualification of the teacher work force, research has not found the highest degree attained by teachers to be a good predictor of gains in students’ academic achievement (Hanushek, 2009).
Number of years of teaching experience has also proven to be problematic in predicting such gains. Generally beginning teachers (three or less years of teaching experience) are not as effective as teachers with more years of teaching experience, with brand-new teachers typically being the least effective teachers (Rivkin and Kain, 2007). Research has consistently found out that brand-new teachers make important gains in teaching quality in the first year and smaller gains over the next few career years. However, there is no consistent linear relationship between years of experience and students achievement after the initial three years of teaching, making it difficult to say whether there are any discernible difference among more veteran teachers for example between teachers with 7-10 years of experience (Rivkin and Kain, 2007).
Researchers agree that teaching experience is positively correlated with higher students’ achievement even though finding about its meaning varies. Izumi LT, Evers WM (2000). For instance, some studies found that years of teaching experience are a consistent predictors of higher test scores, other documents revealed a negative effect, when a high proportion of non-experienced teachers are present in a school in terms of higher dropout rates and lower students achievement score (Agbatogun, 2010). Some research studies suggest that effect of teacher experience is small relative to the effect of other desirable teachers’ characteristics such as teachers’ content knowledge, and overall academic ability (Agbatogun, 2010).
Abe and Adu (2013) and Wiki (2013) opined that, a teaching qualification or teacher qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degree that enables a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary school. Such qualifications include, but are not limited to, the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGDE); The Professional Diploma in Education (PDE), Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) and Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE). In Ekiti State, teachers who are academically qualified and those that are professionally qualified are engaged to carry out instructional process (Ahiazu and Prince Will, 2011).
Academically qualified teachers refer to those who have academic training as a result of enrolment into educational institution and obtained qualifications such as HND, B.Sc., B.A, and M.A. and so on; while professionally qualified teachers are those who got professional training that gave them professional knowledge, skills, techniques, aptitudes as different from the general education (Edu and Kalu, 2012). They hold degrees like, B.Ed., B.Sc. Ed, B.A. Ed, and M.Ed and so on.
Adeniji (2009), Osokoya (2009) and Oladele (2009) found out that teacher’s qualification contributed minimally to the variance with students’ cognitive achievement and Bilesanmi (2010) and Okonwa (2010) found out that teacher’s experience was highly significant on students’ academic achievement Government . Coonery (2005) opined that students do not understand lesson taught when it is taught by an ineffective teacher. Izumi and Evess (2002) buttressed this by saying that teacher quality is the most important among other critical factors like quality curricula, funding, small class size and learning situation.
George (2004) attributed poor achievement of students to teacher qualification, inadequacy of materials as well as administrative factors. In teaching and learning, Adesina (2002) and Fafunwa (2002) opined that with an exception of holders of minimum of B.Sc, many other teachers are confronted with problem of teaching secondary school syllabus effectively. Hence, Lussa (2005) argued that no one gives what he/she does not possess. He further said that no matter how good a course curriculum is, if we do not have well trained, qualified and motivated teachers, we may not achieve the desired goals. In view of this, a teacher is someone who has been exposed to a good measure of training in a teaching subject area as well as in professional education: such professionally qualified teachers may according to the Federal Ministry of Education (2004) fall into a number of academic categories.
According to Adieze (2009) non qualified and non-professional teachers in teaching profession are killing the profession because they are not really teachers. He regarded them as “bird” of passage that create unnecessary vacuum whenever they see greener pasture and better prospect in the profession they are originally trained for.
The differential scholastic achievement of students in Nigeria has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to be educators, government and parents. This is so because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country. All over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria. (Adebule, 2004). Parents and government are in total agreement that their huge investment on education is not yielding the desired dividend.
Statement of the problem
Teaching and learning depend to a large extent on teacher’s own knowledge of the content and ability to adequately deliver the instruction to the students. However a lot of variables may inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of the content by the students, such variables may be lack of qualified teachers, teachers’ qualification, experience, inadequate use of instructional materials among others. In view of the above problem the study sought to determine the effectof teacher qualification on school students’ performance
Purpose of the Study
The major objective of this study is to determine effect of teacher qualification on students’ performance in selected secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti
Also the specific objectives are:
- To determine the effects of teacher’s qualification on student Academic Achievement
- To determine the perception of teacher on students for poor performance and teacher’s qualification?
- To determine the attitude of teacher towards teaching and learning in secondary schools
- To determine the effect of student’s poor Academic Achievement and teacher’s method of teaching
Significances of the Study
This study is considered significant in the sense that it will generate sufficient data useful to teachers and government that are concerned with the welfare of students. Also, it is hopeful that the study will provide data on effects of teacher’s qualification on the Academic Achievements of the students.
Also, it will help the curriculum planners to know if teacher qualification is the major factors of student poor Academic Achievement in the sample school.
The outcome of this research study creates data that will help in future research. The result of the study would assist the Federal Government and the Ministry of Education on how to improve the conditions of the standard of living among undergraduate students in order to employ efforts to reduce stress in tertiary schools in Nigeria.
Scope of the Study
This research work focus on the effect of teacher qualification on students’ Academic Achievement . The study covers 100 selected students and 20 selected teachers from five selected secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti
This research will attempt to answer the following questions.
- What are the effect of teaches qualification on students’ Academic Achievement
- What are the effect of teaching experience on students’ Academic Achievement
- What are the effects of teaching method on students’ Academic Achievement?
- What effect does teachers attitude on students’ Academic Achievement?
- Do instructional materials have impact on students’ Academic Achievement
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ qualification and student academic performance .
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ experience and students Academic Achievement
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ method of teaching and students performance .
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ attitude and students performance