ABSRACT                                                                                                    This  local  beer is  brewed  from  a   cereal  grain  called  millet,and  it  is  brewed  with  bitter  leave  extract  acting  as  hop  substitute  to  see  if  it  can  increase  the  shelf – life  of this  beer.The  production  process  include  malting, mashing, fermentation, and  maturation.The microorganisms  associated  with  fermentation  include  Saccharomyces  Cerevisiae and  Saccharomyces  Charelienia.These  yeast  hasten  fermentation  by  converting  the  sugar  in  the  beer  to  alcohol. Kunu  is  an  indigenous  alcoholic  beverages  that  is  traditionally  brewed  with out hops,and  because  of  this  it  has  a  shot shelf  life  as  compared  with  that brewed  with  the  tropical  hops.There   is  a  significant [P≥ 0.05] difference  in  chemical  properties of millet  with  hops  and  without  hops.Millet  with  hops  is  the  best  with  alcoholic  content  of  0.325 ± 0.004, total  acidity  of 0.645 ± 0.011(% lactic  acid),fixed  acidity  of  0.041± 0.002, specific gravity of 1.199±0.015 and  pH  of  4.03± 0.02.But  without  hops  we  have  an  alcoholic  content  of  0.316± 0.005, total  acidity(lactic  acid) of  0.427± 0.002, fixed  acidity  of  0.034± 0.005,specific  gravity  of  1.049± 0.007, and  pH  of  3.32±0.02.From  the  result  the beer without  hops  is  the  lowest  in  acceptance  of  chemical  properties  so  it  is  advisable  that  the local millet  beer  be  brewed  with  the tropical  hops (Vernonia Amygdalina).                                                                                                                            


TABLE   OF  CONTENT                          

Title page—————————————————————–

Certification  page——————————————————–




Table  of  content——————————————————-

List  of  tables———————————————————–

List  of   figure———————————————————

                       CHAPTER   ONE                                                                                                                                                                            

1.0   Introduction——————————————————————————-

1.1  Aim  of  study / Project——————————————————————                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 CHAPTER   TWO             

2.0   Literature  Review———————————————————————–

2.1  General  Description of  Cereal Crops————————————————-

2.2   Origin  of  Millet  and  its  distribution————————————————

2.2.1   Botanical [Scientific  classification]————————————————-

2.2.2    Diseases  and  Pest  of   Pearl  Millets———————————————-

2.2.3    Grain  Composition  and  Nutritive  value—————————————–

2.2.4   Other  Uses  of   Pearl   Millet——————————————————-

2.3  Origin  and  Distribution   of  Sorghum————————————————

2.3.1   Botanical[Scientific Classification]————————————————-

2.3.2   Grain  Composition  of   Sorghum—————————————————

2.3.3   Other  Uses  of   Sorghum————————————————————

2.4      Hops————————————————————————————-

2.4.1   Other   Uses   of   Hops—————————————————————

2.5     Bitter leaves  Juice  and  its  role—————————————————–

2.5.1  Botanic  Classification  of   Bitter leaves——————————————–

2.5.2  Composition  of   Bitter leaves——————————————————–

2.6     Yeast————————————————————————————–

2.6.1  Origin  and  Distribution  of  Yeast————————————————–

2.6.2   Composition   of   Yeast————————————————————–

2.6.3   How  Yeast  is  Prepared————————————————————–

2.7     Water————————————————————————————-

2.8      Clarifying   agent———————————————————————–

2.9      Adjuncts———————————————————————————

2.10    Biochemistry  of   brewing   Process————————————————

2.10.1  Biochemistry  of  Malting————————————————————

2.10.2  Biochemistry  of  Boiling————————————————————

2.10.3  Biochemistry  of  Mashing———————————————————–

2.10.4  Biochemistry  of  Souring————————————————————

2.10.5  Biochemistry  of  Fermentation—————————————————–

2.11     Straining——————————————————————————–

2.12    Properties   of   Beer——————————————————————-

2.12.1  Processes  Involved  in  Beer  Production—————————————–

2.12.2  Lagering——————————————————————————–

2.12.3  Types  of   Beer————————————————————————

2.13 Preparation  of   Local  Beer————————————————————

2.13.1   Factors Affecting  both  Local  and Modern Beer——————————

2.13.2   Alcoholic  Content  of   Beer——————————————————-

2.13.3   Differences  Between  Local  and Modern Beer———————————

2.14      Packaging  and  Distribution——————————————————–

2.14.1   Spoilage——————————————————————————–

2.15      Importance  of  fermented Alcoholic Beverages———————————                                                                                                                                                                                                         CHAPTER   THREE

3.0  Materials  and  methods —————————————————————–

3.0.1   Materials ——————————————————————————– Chemicals  and  Reagents ———————————————————– Glass  wares  and  equipments ——————————————————

3.1 Preparation  of  samples  —————————————————————–

3.1.1 Methods ———————————————————————————- Ingredients —————————————————————————–

3.1.2  Method used to prepared local millet beer —————————————–  Method used to prepared aqueous extract of  bitter leaf ———————–

3.1.3  Method  of  chemical  analysis ——————————————————-

3.1.4  Total  acidity —————————————————————————-

3.1.5  Fixed  acidity —————————————————————————

3.1.6 Volatile  acidity————————————————————————–

3.2  pH   determination————————————————————————

3.3 Specific  gravity —————————————————————————

3.4  Determination  of  Alcohol  content —————————————————

3.5  Total  dissolved  solid (TDS).———————————————————–

3.6  Total  suspended  solid (TSS).———————————————————-

3.7   Microbial Count  ————————————————————————

3.7.1  Procedure  for  culturing in the  plate.———————————————–

3.7.2  Procedure for identification  of  the  organisms ———————————–                                                                                                                                                                                             CHAPTER    FOUR

4.0  Results————————————————————————————–

4.1  Some  Chemical  Parameters————————————————————

4.2  Total  Acidity for local Millet  Beer—————————————————

4.3 Fixed  acidity for local Millet Beer —————————————————–

4.4  Volatile  Acidity ————————————————————————–

4.5  Specific Gravity  of  Millet  Beer——————————————————-

4.6  pH   value  for  local  millet  beer ——————————————————

4.7  Total  dissolved  solid.——————————————————————-

4.8 Total  suspended  solid.——————————————————————-

4.9  Ethanol  Content  for  Bench  Stored  Millet——————————————

4.10   Microbial  Count  for  Bench  Millet  Beer——————————————

4.10.1  Microbial  Count  for  Freezed  Millet Beer————————————–

4.11  General  Discussion  of  Results.——————————————————-


CHAPTER  FIVE                                                                                                                           

5.0  Disadvantages  Associated  with Over Consumption of  Brewed Beer———–

5.0.1  Advantages associated  with consumption of  brewed beer———————-

5.1   Conclusion——————————————————————————–

5.2  Recommendation————————————————————————-

5.3  Limitations  of  Study——————————————————————–

5.4  References———————————————————————————

5.5  Appendix  A ——————————————————————————

5.6  Appendix   B ——————————————————————————

5.7 Appendix   C ——————————————————————————-

5.8  Appendix   D ——————————————————————————

5.9 Appendix   E ——————————————————————————-



LIST   OF   TABLES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

Table 1:Some Chemical  Parameters  on Local Millet Beer—————————–

Table 2: Total  Acidity  for local Millet  Beer———————————————-

Table  3:Fixed  Acidity  for local millet beer. ———————————————

Table 4:Specific Gravity of  Millet  Beer—————————————————

Table 5:pH   value.—————————————————————————-

Table  6:Total  Dissolved  solid (TDS).—————————————————–

Table 7:Total  Suspended  solid (TSS).—————————————————–

Table 8:Ethanol Content of  Millet Beer—————————————————-

Table 9: Microbial  Count for Bench  Stored Millet Beer——————————–

Table 10: Microbial Count  for Freezed  Millet Beer————————————-

Table 11:Total Microbial Count for both bench and Freezed Millet  Beer ————




LIST    OF   FIGURES                                                                                                      

Fig.1: A Scheme  of  the  Brewing  Process————————————————

Fig.2: Flow Sheet of  home Brewed  Products———————————————

Fig 3: A Schematic Representation  of  Glucose  Degradation

Under  Aerobic  and  Anaerobic Condition————————————————-

Fig 4 : The Glycolytic Pathway ————————————————————-

Fig 5:The  Pathway  of  Carbon atoms  in  Glycolysis and  alcoholic Fermention—-

Fig 6:Fermentation  Scheme——————————————————————

Fig 7: Flow Sheet for the Local Production of  Millet  Beer—————————–










 CHAPTER  ONE                                                                                       


Beer, alcoholic brewery made from a Cerael grains known as barley and Millet.A process called Fermentation in which Microscopic fungi known as yeast is used to consume sugers in the grains to make Beers,converting them to alcohol and carbondioxide gas.This chemical process typically produce beers with an adequate level of alcohol content of about  2-6%.Over an aggregate of 70 types of  beer are available in the modern worlds todays.Each style of beer derives its unique characteristics  and differences in its brewing process.Four basic ingredients are used in brewing,which includes;grains, hops,[bitterleaves as a hop’s substitute]Yeast and water,Grains like Millet contain the natural sugers required for  fermentation.It also provides beer  with  flavour,colour,body and  texture.Hops are small,green,cone-shaped flowers from the hop plant,a vine related to the nettle plant over  50 varieties of hops are grown throughout the  world, mostly in Europe,Australia and  North America.But the hops we want to used is bitterleave acting as hop’s substitute.It is mostly  grown here in Africa.Hops provides the Beer with spicy, bitter flavour  and contribute  natural  substances that prevent bacteria  from spoiling beer. Two species of  Yeast ;Saccharomyces  cerevisiae  and  Saccharomyces  uvarum  and baker’s yeast.Each yeast species is used in a slightly different method of fermentation and produces a distinct  type of  beer. Throughout history, where ever Cereal grains were grown, Humans made beer with beverage for them. They used Barley in Egypt, Millet and Sorghum in other parts of  Africa, beer brewing is a major industrial revolution world wide. In 2002,In the United States,1800brewers,produced almost 175 millions barrels of  beer.Beer is deeply interlined in the fabric of Society, from the Economic to the intangible locally owned breweries deliver social values better than global companies. Since early times beer which is  the products of brewing processes has played an important role in our society, It bring people together in local pubs and breweries generating Camaraderie within Communities. As technology has progress brewing techniques have been developed and refined. As a result, we are currently consuming the finest beers ever produced. This is due to our increased knowledge in the fields of Biotechnology, Microbiology, and Chemistry.


The aim of study is primarily to have a capture of the effect  use  of  a tropical hop named bitter  leaf(Vernonia Amygdalina) extract as a means of extending the shelf–life of a locally millet beer.In the course of achieving this goal, the ingredients used in brewing industries are taken into consideration together with various analysis carried on beer samples.Finally, beer should be of an adequate composition and texture in order to satisfy consumers need and        sensitivity on the disadvantages of beer abuse to the health and body.





Cereals are of various species and belong to the grass family            cultivated for their seeds, which is used as food (Redmond, WA 2007). Although the cereals proper do not belong to any particular class of grasses, the use of particular species as bread plants seems to have been determined chiefly by the superior size of the seeds or by the ease of procuring it insufficient quantity and of freeing it from it edible covering (Nduka 1995). The most extensively cultivated grain is barley and different kinds of millet. The cereals grains are the stable food for the people living in the tropics, providing them with about 75% of their total carbohydrate and 67% of their total protein intake. The grains are eaten in many ways, sometimes as paste, roast, and porridge. Other preparations of the seeds are often milled and others processed into flour starch, brain oil breakfast or dinner and beer. With respect to the comparative structure, there are a few important features that cereals grain has in common. All the cereal grains are plant seeds and therefore contain a large central located starchy endosperm which is also rich in proteins, a protective outer coat consisting of two or three layers of fibrous tissue and an embryo or germ usually located near the bottom of the seeds.  Millet and sorghum constituted the key substrates used by African Breweries in the earliest centuries of indigenous beer production. Indigenous to Africa; there were the only grains available for brewing until the introduction of maize by the Portuguese in about the 16th century (Bryant 1948). As maize cultivation spread, some brewers did incorporate maize into their brewing recipes. Since it does not malt as well as millet or sorghum(Bantu Beer unit 1971).Scientific classification, cereals belong to the family Poacea (formerly Gramineae), Barley in the genus Hordenm and millet is classified in the genus  Setatia, Elensine, Panicum, and Pennisetum. (Cereals Microsoft Student Encarta 2008).


The origin of this particular millet has been traced to tropical Africa. It is a widely grown type of millet grown in Africa, Indian sub continent since pre-historical time. The earliest archaeological record in Indian date to 2000 BC, so domestication in Africa must have taken place earlier. The center of diversity for the crop is in Sahel Zone of West Africa, cultivation subsequently spread to East and Southern Africa and Southern Asia.

Pearl millet is well adapted to production system, characterized by drought, low soil fertility and high temperature. It performs well in soil with high salinity or low pH. Because of its tolerance to difficult growing conditions, it can be grown in areas where other cereal crop such as maize or wheat will not survive. Today pearl millet is grown on over 260000km world wide, it accounts for approximately 50% of the total world production of millet.

Specialized archaeologists called palaeothnobotanists, relying on data such as the relative abundance of charred grains found in archaeological sites, hypothesize that the cultivation of millets was of greater prevalence in prehistory than rice, especially in northern China and Korea. It was millets, rather than rice, that formed important parts of the prehistoric diet in Chinese Neolithic and Korean Mumun societies. Broomcorn (Panicum miliaceum) and foxtail millet were important crops beginning in the Early Neolithic of China. For example, some of the earliest evidence of millet cultivation in China was found at Cishan (north) and Hemudu (south). Cishan dates for common millet husk phytoliths and bimolecular components have been identified around 8300–6700 BC in storage pits along with remains of pit-houses, pottery, and stone tools related to millet cultivation. Evidence at Cishan for foxtail millet dates back to around 6500 BC. A 4,000-year-old well-preserved bowl containing well-preserved noodles made from foxtail millet and broomcorn millet was found at the Lajia archaeological site in China.Palaeoethnobotanists have found evidence of the cultivation of millet in the Korean Peninsula dating to the Middle Jeulmun pottery period (c. 3500–2000 BC) (Crawford 1992; Crawford and Lee 2003). Millet continued to be an important element in the intensive, multi-cropping agriculture of the Mumun pottery period (c. 1500–300 BC) in Korea (Crawford and Lee 2003). Millets and their wild ancestors such as barnyard grass and panic grass were also cultivated in Japan during the Jomon period some time after 4000 BC (Crawford 1983, 1992).

Millet made its way from China to the Black Sea region of Europe by 5000 BC.The cultivation of common millet as the earliest dry crop in East Asia has been attributed to its resistance to drought and this has been suggested to have aided its spread.



Top ten millet producers — 2007
Country Production (Tones) Footnote
 India 10,610,000 *
 Nigeria 7,700,000 *
 Niger 2,781,928  
 China 2,101,000 F
 Burkina Faso 1,104,010  
 Mali 1,074,440 F
 Sudan 792,000 *
 Uganda 732,000  
 Chad 550,000 *
 Ethiopia 500,000 F
 World 31,875,597 A


  • BOTANICAL[Scientific Classification]of Pearl Millet

Kingdom- Plantae



Order- Poales

Family- Pamcoidee

Genus- Pennitetom

Species- P. glacom

Source- [www.wiki. org/millet]



The two major pest of pearl millet are grasshopper and army worm. The other insects

and pest that affect the production of pearl millet are clinch and bugs.

Common disease of pearl millet that affect the proper production of pearl millet are

mildew, bacteria blight, kernel smot, and leaf sports .



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