THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE
The focus to this student was to investigate on the effects of instructional materials in teaching and leaning of integrated science.
Five secondary schools were selected in Akure south local government area in Ondo State. 200 students were randomly selected from the selected schools, the instrument used consist of
Student Questionnaire (S.Q)
Teacher Questionnaire (T.P)
There exists a significant (positive) change on the effect of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science. This confirms that adequate used of instructional materials motivate student performances in integrated science.
One also needs to acknowledge that there are many effect of instructional on academic performances, there must be improvement on the use of the instructional materials.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problems
1.3 Problem of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1.6 Significant of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Student/Delimitation
2.1 Literature Review
2.2 Selection of Instructional Materials
2.3 Utilization of Instructional Materials
2.4 Mis-Use Instructional AIDS
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.4 Method of Data Collection
3.5 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Presentation and Interpretation of Data
4.1 Procedure of Data Collection
4.2 Analysis of Data
4.3 Result and Discussion
5.0 Conclusion, Recommendation and Summary
1.1 BACK GROUND TO THE STUDY
The substantial level at which countries in the whole universe are anxious to improve in science and technology every day can not be undermined. High priority has been placed on science and technology because of the vital role it plays on the society at large.
Science is defined as a body of knowledge in an orderly manner, especially knowledge obtained by observation and testing of fact, generalization pursuit of knowledge. Scientists tried to explain and predict the way in which every thing in the world behaves.
According to Advanced learners dictionary, science involves finding out how and why things happen natural curiosity sometimes provide the starting point for a scientist or scientific knowledge.
Integrated science is a major fundamental branch of science because its principles are from branch of science because its principles are from the function of life. Integrated science as the foundation of all science subjects should be handled and taught properly in secondary schools so as to produce future generation of vibrant, competent and qualified scientist.
Integrated science as a subject of study can be described as the linking together of all science subjects to form a whole; the science subjects linked together include, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and deals with reality of life which includes human and every visible and invisible things. In this regard, Integrated science as a subject should not be taught in our secondary schools as a body of theoretical knowledge only, since it deals with theoretical and piratical aspect, Integrated science should be taught practically most often.
The use of instructional materials must be encouraged in the teaching and learning of integrated science so as to make it more realistic an d effective. Although a lot of problems had led to the poor performances of integrated science students in secondary schools, among others as a course of study. Other facts include poor instructional materials, poor facilities, environment factors, teachers’ altitudes, teaching skills, it is a clear fact that the subject can be difficult, but difficulty itself is a form of altitudes which can be broken by improving individual interest through the use of instructional materials. PEREZ (1973) affirmed that if teachers wish to teach science properly, the teacher must be willing to delegate to the students’ many duties.
These materials are necessary for the purpose of bringing about effective teaching and learning. They also concerned with a person, material or event that established condition which enables the learners to acquire knowledge, skills and altitudes. It could also be referred to as instructional media
Instructional materials include text books, object models, charts, audio visual, pictures, maps and globes these instructional materials facilities effective teaching and learning of science in general
IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
1 It enhances better understanding and good communication between the teacher and the learners.
2 It gives room for learner’s active participation in the lesson, thereby making the lesson interesting.
3 It promote self discovery.
4 Instructional materials can be used in the classroom to arouse the mind of readiness to learn in the learner.
5 It makes teaching effective, even through it cannot replace the teacher; It is an auxiliary to the teacher’s effort.
6 It make the subject to be more realistic practically included.
7 Using of instructional materials will have great impact in the performances of students, since it will help the students to experiment or investigate matters using scientific skills.
8 For teacher to be successful, in teaching integrated science, and to achieve, his/ her pre-stated objectives, instructional materials must be readily available, timely and effectively used.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Integrated science is a subject which should not be taught abstractly. Teachers should endeavor to make it their habit to used instructional materials in teaching integrated science as a subject. Also, they should take note either the use of instructional materials method has many impacts or not their student’s performances. It does, positively, it means the performance of the students will be though, instructional material are not enough in most schools, not only secondary schools, yet those available should be adequately used by the teachers or make improvisation, as need may arise for those not available, so that, the students can get themselves in the classroom lesson, especially if the teacher adopt- activities based method in his teaching. The act of making the teaching and learning of integrated science and chalk and talk method should be discouraged.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study seeks to look at the effect of instructional materials, on the teaching and learning of integrated science in secondary schools and their academic performance.
This study is set to achieve the following:-
- Encouraging teachers to make use of instructional materials; in the absences the should improvised.
- To stimulate interest and improve the method teaching integrated science with the use of instructional materials.
- To find out either the schools are well equipped with science fertilities or not.
- To enlighten the teachers on the effects of the instructional aids on their learners performances
- To find out if available instructional materials are adequately used the teachers.
- To determine both the teachers and the students attitudes towards the used of instructional materials etc.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following are the research questions arouse in the study, viz;
- Where there is no instructional material or aids will the teaching and learning of integrated science be effective and efficient?
- When instructional materials are adequately used by the teachers, will it affect the academic performance of the students?
- What are the altitudes of teacher toward the use of the instructional aids?
- Is there any relationship between academic achievement and instructional material?
- In from should the instructional material for teaching integrated science be? Etc
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The research hypothesis fasted in this study are as follows:
(i) students that were taught with the aid of instructional material performed better academically than those who were taught without the aid of instructional materials.
(ii) Instructional materials have a great effect in the effective
teaching and learning of integrated science.
(iii) There are significant relationship between the instructional materials and effective teaching etc.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study was intended to identify the key roles and effects of instructional in making the teaching of integrated science more efficient, effective and impressive and also interesting in our secondary schools.
Also to vehemently ascertained that the used of instructional material in the teaching of integrated science aids retardation, so that it should be mandated for integrated science teaching in secondary schools to make use of instructional materials during the process of teaching and learning of integrated science.
Likewise, to make both the teachers and learners aware that teacher performed well during when there are instructional material. Also the learners discovered many relevant things in their physical environments
Moreover, to show that all science subjects should be practically oriented than theoretical.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDENT/DELIMINATION
This student is deliminated to Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State Nigeria.
The student covered JSS1 and JSS2 students of five schools.
Integrated science will be used as the teaching subject.
There were forty students in the class of each five (5) schools, during this study i.e student from each of the five schools covered by the study making a total population of 200 students (two hundred).