FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RATE OF DRUG ABUSE AND ITS EFFECT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page………………………………………………………………….

Certification……………………………………………………………….

Approval Page………………………………………………………………

Dedication………………………………………………………………..

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………….

Abstract……………………………………………………………………

Table of Contents………………………………………………………..

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

Statement of the problem

Objective of the study

Research questions

Significance of the study

Scope of the study

Operational definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

General causes of drug addiction.

Peer pressure influence

Factors contributing to this effect include:

Parental or family influence

Effect of the media

Common drugs of abuse

Traditional alcoholic beverages and drugs

Modern drugs of abuse

Effects of drug abuse

Measures of preventing drug abuse.

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

Research design

Population, sampling procedure and sample

Research instrument

Validity of research instrument

Data collection

Data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendations

Suggestions for Further Studies

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

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ABSTRACT

This research work is geared to identify the factors influencing the rate of drug abuse and its effect on academic performance of secondary school student, Ifedore was used as a case study, in the process questionnaire were administered to guide the data through interview method to case modern case and trend of drug abuse, the findings rate of the study revealed that the high rate of drug abuse is as a result of low standard of living and Nigeria economic crunch and high rate of separation in marriage, child abuse and neglect. Recommendations were given, which is employed will help in a big way towards the reduction of deviances behavior amongst youth.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Drug, a substance that affects the function of living cells, used in medicine to diagnose, cure, prevent the occurrence of diseases and disorders, and prolong the life of patients with incurable conditions. Moronkola (1993) believed that use, misuse and abuse of drugs are three concepts in drug issues that need proper classification. Use is a term reserved for any purpose to which drug is taken to the body by man.

Drugs are chemicals. They work in the brain by tapping into the brain’s communication system and interfering with the way nerve cells normally send, receive, and process information. Some drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, can activate neurons because their chemical structure mimics that of a natural neurotransmitter. This similarity in structure “fools” receptors and allows the drugs to lock onto and activate the nerve cells.

Although these drugs mimic brain chemicals, they don’t activate nerve cells in the same way as a natural neurotransmitter, and they lead to abnormal messages being transmitted through the network. Other drugs, such as amphetamine or cocaine, can cause the nerve cells to release abnormally large amounts of natural neurotransmitters or prevent the normal recycling of these brain chemicals. This disruption produces a greatly amplified message, ultimately disrupting communication channels. The difference in effect can be described as the difference between someone whispering into your ear and someone shouting into a microphone.

Drug is supposed to be dispersed by pharmacists with a doctor’s prescription and usage of drug can be through any of the following; injection, insertion, inhalation, massaging or application on open wounds and cuts. The main purpose of drugs should in reality be directed to its medical functions and it should be used strictly according to the prescription of medical doctors, but in most cases people use drug without the prescription of medical practicioner. This is referred to as drug abuse. In some cases, these drugs are used wrongly or misused. That is using, drug meant for certain purposes for other purposes rather than what it is meant for. There are other cases where some people get themselves involved in the use of a particular drug so much that they cannot do without such drug. In this case such a person is said to be addicted to that drug.

PEOPLE ABUSE DRUG FOR DIFFERENT REASONS

i. For modification of tension and anxiety

For example sedatives; are use to induce sleep and relax tension. They are used for people with high blood pressure, insomnia patient ( that is inability to sleep) usually abuse sedatives. Now teenage girls and women are consuming sedative more and more frequently.

ii. To increase activities and alertness:

For example stimulant like cocaine, caferreine and amplietamines are mostly widely abused stimulant among youths. Usually stimulants are taken through by mouth in form of capsules or tablets but the occasional user of capsules or tablets can push them beyond the normal physiological limits, for instance, wanting to stay awaken to drive, to excel in an athletic context or to cram for examination.

iii. Curiosity:

Students find themselves in the use of drugs out of curiosity. They want to know how it looks like in being on a certain drugs. Drugs that are commonly used out of curiosity are cigarettes, marijuana and alcohol.

iv. Imitation:

Students takes drugs as a result of imitation of either from their parents, other adult or their friends and peers.

v. For boldness:

Students take certain drug because they feel it will remove inhibition from them and make them bold for example, shy young boys under the influence of drugs can speak to a girl their could not have made advance towards.

vi. For fun:

Others go into drugs for the fun of it. They also feel that drug can enable the have a lot of fun.

FOUR GROUPS OF DRUG USERS GENERALLY IDENTIFIED

i. Emotionally well- adjusted individuals who take addicting drugs on medical advice for treatment of pain, sleeplessness and the like after protected use they find that they cannot get along without them.

ii. The neurotics who turn to drug because drugs makes them forget their feelings of inadequacy and fear making them feel better and more normal either physically, mentally or both. These contribute to longest group of drug abusers.

The psychopaths who take drugs in a deliberate

iii. Search for thrills, highs, and kicks..

iv. Individual usually adolescent who try drugs in order to be accepted by their peer group.

Most of these young ones usually start from this group and if the habit continues grave consequences may follow. Trying a relatively less detrimental drug such as cannabis may expose the young one to other drugs like heroine, cocaine and morphine.

Man has used drug and substances for centuries. There is evidence that man has used drug practically since his emergence. Historical records show that man used drug to cast out demons which were thought to be causing pain in his body. The use of psychoactive drugs may be seen to be a universal phenomenon existing in one form or the other. Alcohol and kolanuts are used during worship of ancestral gods, marriages and funeral ceremonies.

According to Emaifo {2008} drug addiction was unknown in Nigeria until the arrival of the American Peace Corps. This statement cannot be entirely true because Nigerians were already abusing and getting themselves addicted to kolanuts and alcohol before the arrival of the Peace Corps. The statement can only be true of foreign drugs which were introduced this time.

Scientist and historians traced the origin of tobacco to North America where it was first cultivated by American Indians before the Europeans went to the new world in 1492.

It should be noted that when drugs are mentioned, the emphasis is always on orthodox medicine and not traditional medicine.

THE HISTORY OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE

Most traditional drugs are always misused or abused because of lack of dosage to determine the required quantity by the user. The expiration period of such drugs are never stated.

Although the use of traditional drugs as well as alcohol and kola nut has been abuse before the arrival of Peace Corps. In recent years where there is the usage of both traditional and foreign drugs people now being used. Some of these drugs are socially accepted and members of the public ignorantly use them without really knowing the great effect of such drugs. E.g. alcohol has always been part of the heritage either as part of rituals or other ceremonies. The use of alcohol to relax and promote social conversation is greatly use of alcohol and its social acceptability, alcohol is capable of producing severe dependence and damage to physical health and mental health including social and economic damage on self, family and society.

Cecilia (2010) opined that medically, drug abuse is the use of drug to an extent that it produces definite impairment on social, psychological or physiological functioning of the user. Drug abuse is also the use of illegal drugs, or the misuse of prescription or over-the-counter drugs. It refers to the use of a drug for purposes for which it is not intended or using a drug in excessive quantities. Such drugs of abuse include tobacco, barbiturates, amphetamines and narcotics. Drug abuse entails a strong cultural and subjective bias, depending on whether a society at a particular point in time views the use of a particular drug as acceptable or not. Therefore, what is regarded as normal use as against pathological abuse varies greatly from drug, quantity, situation to situation, culture to culture or even among subcultures of the same society.

It has been observed that much of substance use among youths take place in schools. The incidence of substance use among students is high (Eneh & Stanley, 2004). Drug and alcohol use during adolescence is almost always a social experience and a learned behaviour (Swaid 1988). One of the important psychological phenomena observed during this period of adolescence is experimentation (Graham, Turk & Verhulst 1999). This behaviour has been found to lead to the trying out of new experiences such as drug and sex, sometimes with dire consequence for the adolescents.

The growing trend in abuse and production of psychotropic substances must be reversed. We must never give in to the human toll illegal drugs are taking on our societies. There are 21 million victims around the world who abuse cocaine and heroin, and 30 million who abuse amphetamine – type stimulants. “We cannot ease their suffering, or that of their loved ones, unless we fight this.”( Former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, at the opening of the General Assembly’s 1998 Special Session on World’s Drug Problem.) We all face challenges that provide many opportunities for growth and change. Among these are decisions regarding the role that alcohol and other drugs will have in our life.

Television and movies have the greatest influence on junior students in making drugs and alcohol seem attractive. The second greatest influence is other children. Children in grades four through six think that the most important reason for using alcohol and marijuana is to “fit in with others,” followed closely by a desire “to feel older.”

Students also have incomplete or inaccurate information. For example, only 44 per cent of sixth graders polled in a national survey think alcohol should be called a drug?. This finding reinforces the need for prevention programs beginning in the early grades, programs that focus on teaching children the facts about drugs and alcohol and the skills to resist peer pressure to use them.

Students who turn to more potent drugs usually do so after first using cigarettes and alcohol (gateway drugs), and then marijuana. Initial attempts may not produce a “high”; however, students who continue to use drugs learn that drugs can change their thoughts and feelings. The greater a student’s involvement with marijuana, the more likely it is the student will begin to use other drugs alongside marijuana.

These problems and incidences of drug abuse among secondary school students necessitated the need for this study in this area.

Statement of the Problem

Drug abuse is a general problem in Nigeria today especially in areas where there is no adequate supervision i.e. monitoring of students and effective usage of punishment for deviant behaviours. Recently NDLEA officials reported cases of junior secondary school students in possession of Indian Hemp.

Academic achievement is measured in a variety of ways. The most commonly cited indicator is the rate of high school completion. Statistics also are available on grades, standardized test scores, absenteeism, suspensions and expulsions, and the percentage of students who have been held back. The following are often cited indicators of low achievement which could be as a result of drug abuse.

Also, cases such as riots during inter-house sports, secondary school student wielding dangerous weapons such as cutlasses, broken bottles, etc. can also be linked to the effect of this dangerous act called drug abuse. The entire indices of problem highlighted above have led to low academic performance of students, hence the need for this study.

Objective of the Study

The general objective of this study is to investigate into cases of drug abuse and to what extent the abuse of drugs has affected the performance of students in school work. The specific objectives are to:

i. Find out if parents, peers take any form of drug and what kind of drug(s) they abuse.

ii. examine how parent got involved in drug abuse and how students get the drugs they abuse

iii. investigate students attitude towards school work and if they have been counselled about drugs;

Research Questions

i. Do the students‟ parents, peers take drugs?

ii. What type of drugs is taken by parents and peers?

iii. How do the students get involved in drug abuse?

iv. Does drug abuse have any effect on academic performance of students?

Significance of the Study

It is of course no more a news that there is a rise in drug addiction among young ones at tender ages which is becoming a problem to the society. The Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development estimated that about one quarter of the adolescent population is at risk of academic failure and other problem behaviours. Another quarter is considered “moderately” at risk (Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 1989, p. 8).

This research would help to find the causes behind this addiction, its impact on academic achievement, and of course provide information on the effects of this act and in lieu of this suggest, possible solutions to the problem.

Scope of the Study

The scope of this study would be to investigate the cases of increasing drug abuse among secondary school students, the kind of drugs they abuse and also spread its coverage to the possible ways of being addicted and of course the correlation between children’s performance in school and drugs and also to answer the question, how and to what extent can news media messages on illicit drugs influence youth attitudes towards (or demand for) illicit drug use?.

Operational Definition of Terms

i. Drugs: Drug is any chemical substance that is derived from plants and animals or mineral resources be it traditional or orthodox which is used for internal or external application to the human body in the treatment of diseases or to induce clam, reduce pains or modify the functions of the various system of the body.

ii. Substance: Substance are chemical combination of drugs in order words drug made up of combination of chemical substance and substance can as well be refer to as those build up charge like alcohol, tobacco, cigarette and kolanuts.

iii. Drug use: Drug use is the ingestion, injection or the application of any substances which when taken in into the body of living organism may modify one or more of its function, this includes not only medical also intended primarily active substance.

iv. Drug misuse: Is the over -zealous or indiscrete administration of drugs by using drug meant for certain purposes for another purpose rather than what it is meant for.

v. Drug addiction: Drug addiction is the dependence on a substance with the presence of physical withdrawal symptoms.

vi. Psychoactive drugs: This is defined as in alternating drugs.

vii. Habitualism: This is the dependence on a substance without the presence of physical; withdrawal phenomena. Thus it is the psychological desire to repeat the use of these drugs, continuously for emotional reasons.

vii. Dependence: It is a state of psychological or physical need to both resulting from the interaction between an organism and a substance resulting from continuously or periodic use which is characterized by behavioural deviation.

viii. Tolerance: Is defined as the situate ion when the same amount of substance can no longer produce the effects on an the individual and then needs higher amount to produce the same effects.

x. Withdrawal: Is the situation when unpleasant sensation such as shaking, seating tremors, frightening feelings and some times hallucination and delusions occurs when the drug is stopped.

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