HUMAN AND MATERIAL RESOURCES IN ECONOMICS AS CORRELATE OF ECONOMICS STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKITI – STATE.

HUMAN AND MATERIAL RESOURCES IN ECONOMICS AS CORRELATE OF ECONOMICS STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKITI – STATE.

ABSTRACT

This study is set out to investigate the correlate between human and material resources in economics and economics student’s academic achievement in secondary schools in Ekiti State. Data were collected from 100 students and 10 secondary schools which consist of both private and public secondary schools in Ekiti State. The respondents in the sampled schools were administered to view the effect of adequate and inadequate human and material resources to academic achievement. The results of the study revealed that adequate teaching resources had significant effects on student’s performance in economics. Furthermore, the result showed that schools with adequate human and material resources in economics achieve academically than schools without adequate human and material resources in economics.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Statement of the Problem

Objectives of the Study

Research Questions

Research Hypothesis

Significance of the Study

Delimitation of the Study

Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Introduction

Concepts of Human and Material Resources

Human Resources

Professional

Non Professional

Material Resources

Relevance of Human and Material Resources on Economics Students Academic Achievement in Secondary Schools in Ekiti State

Management of Teaching Resources

Utilization of Human and Material Resources

Challenges to Effective Utilization of Human and Material Resources for Economics Students Academic Achievement in Ekiti State

Review of Empirical Findings

Summary of Empirical Literature

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

Introduction

Research Design

Population of the Study

Sample and Sampling Techniques

Research Instruments

Validation of Instruments

Administration of the Research Instrument

Data Analysis

Decision Rule

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Introduction

Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendation

References                                                                                                 

Appendix           

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Economics has been an important subject offered in Nigeria secondary schools because it occupies a significant position in the curriculum of the schools. It is believed that the study of economics is of necessity and very relevant in social science.

According to Coombs (1970), education consists of two components. He classified these two components into inputs and outputs. According to him, inputs consist of human and material resources and outputs are the goals and outcomes of the educational process. In view of these facts, any improvement in the resources and process of teaching Economics leads to a sound educational performance on the part of the students and also creates an avenue to look into the working of a particular economic system. The academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools has often been attributed to a number of factors among which are human and material resources which are a potent factor for academic achievements.

The availability of educational resources (human and material resources) plays a vital role in the attainments of educational objectives. Human resources is a necessary input because it helps in the development of skill acquisition and literacy of the students. It can also be classified into teaching and non – teaching staff. The availability of these resources is required to achievement excellence in the educational system. Nevertheless, it has been observed that secondary schools in Ekiti State do have the required numbers of teachers both in quantity and in quality for the teaching of Economics as a subject.

Findings have shown that material resources are in short supply in the secondary schools, inadequate availability of material resources in schools is attached to poor funding of the system.

Instructional resources which are educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of economics subject in the school curriculum. Wales (1975) was of the opinion that the use of instructional resources would make discovered the facts glued firmly to the memory of students. Savoury (1958) also added that, a well planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lesson should do much to banish aparthy, supplements in adequacy of books as well as arouse student’s interest by giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves. Savoury (1958) suggested a catalogue of useful visual aids that are good for teaching process i.e. pictures, post cards, diagrams, maps, filmstrips and models.

According to him, the selection of materials which are related to the basic contents of a course or a lesson helps in-depth understanding of such a lesson by the students in that they make the lesson attractive to them, thereby arresting their attention and thus motivating them to learn. In order to achieve the objective (a just and egalitarian society) spelled out by the Nigerian National Policy of Education (1981), schools must be properly and adequately equipped with suitable classroom, qualified teachers and libraries to promote sound and effective teaching in secondary schools.

Lack of human and material resources is more evident in the public owned secondary schools. Ekundayo (2009) in a study conducted in Ekiti State submitted that privately owned secondary schools had educated materials better than the publicly owned secondary schools. Owoeye (2000) submitted a positive relationship between material resources in schools and student’s academic achievements. The relationship between human resources and academic achievement in schools has shown that human resources are very important in the academic achievement of students.

The contribution of various scholars has shown the importance of human and material resources to educational objectives will be meaningless. In spite of the noble facts that Economics is a value laden subject in education, reports shows that the academic achievement of students has adversely been affected by lack of human and material resources.

Statement of the Problem

Economics students in Nigeria (Ekiti State) have been facing various problems due to poor academic achievement recorded in the subject. The unavailability of human and material resources has made large number of students to fail the subject and those who passed recorded poor grade.

Also, there have been contradictory findings on whether there is a positive significant in the academic achievement of Economics student’s via human and material resources. As a result, the research work is prepared to find out the correlation between human and material achievement of economics students.

Objective of the Study

The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between human and material resources and economics students academic achievement in secondary schools. While the specific objectives are to;

  1. Discover the relationship between human and material resources and economics student’s academic achievement in secondary schools.
  2. Observe if there can be difference in the academic achievement of Economics students in secondary schools with adequate supply of human and material resources.
  3. Verify if the quantity and quality of teachers teaching economics in secondary schools can improve the academic achievement of economics student’s.
  4. Examine if there can be difference in the academic achievement of economics students in secondary schools with inadequate supply of human material resources.

Research Question

The following research questions are generated to enhance this research.

  • Is there any correlation between human resources and economics student’s academic achievement?
  • Is the availability of material resources related to economics students’ academic achievement?
  • Do the quantities of material resources enhance the academic achievements of economics student’s in secondary schools?
  • Does the availability of human resources enhance students’ academic achievement in economics?
  • Are the material resources in secondary schools adequate when compared to standard?

Research Hypothesis

Ho:  There is no significant difference between the availability of human resources and           economics students academic achievement in Ekiti State Secondary schools.

Ho:   There is no significant difference in the availability of material resources and economics           student’s academic achievement in Ekiti State secondary schools.

Ho:   There is no significant difference between the quality and quantity of teachers teaching           economics and the student’s academic achievement in Ekiti State secondary schools.

Significance of the Study

The study will discuss in detail the correlation between human and material resources and economics students academic achievement. The findings will also give a broad view of the importance of human and material resources to the academic achievement of economics students.

This study will serve as a source of inspiration to others and it will also contribute to the existing literature on the subject matter. The main importance of this study is that it will bring to reality the importance of instructional material resources in improving academic achievements.

Delimitation of the Study

The researcher encounter some difficulties in the course of carrying out this research work such as finance, difficulty in getting data accurately, analyzing the findings and making recommendations.

Definitions of Terms

  • Correlations: This term is used to express the relationship between two variables i.e. to show if there is any relationship between human and material resources and achievement of secondary school economics students.
  • Human resources: refers to the individuals or personnel or workforce that enhances the teaching learning process. They are specialist in subject matters like economics, mathematics, English e.t.c and also people that are engaged in a paid occupation which does not require advanced education or training.
  • Material resources: are all substance of value and usefulness that is owned by an organization and organized for human benefits such as funds, physical facilities, instructional materials or educational media.

 

                                                                                   

 

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