IMPACT OF CLASS SIZE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

IMPACT OF CLASS SIZE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page…………………………………………………

Approval Page……………………………………………

Certification………………………………………………

Dedication…………………………………………………

Acknowledgements………………………..………………

Table of contents…………………………………………..

Abstract……………………………………………………

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

Background of the study…………………………………

Statement of the Problem……….……………………….

Purpose of the Study…………………………………….

Significance of the Study………………………………..

Limitation of the Study………………………………….

Research Questions …………………………………….

Research Hypotheses……………………………………

Assumption …………………………………………….

CHAPTER TWO: Review of Literature

Fundamental Approaches to Class Size ………………..

Concept of Class Size and Academic Performance in Business Studies

Impact of Class Size on Students’ Academic Performance…….

The Effect of Class Size on Students and Teacher Behavior ……

Large Class Size and Classroom Interaction ……………………

CHAPTER THREE: Methodology

Research Design…………………………………………………

Area of the Study ……………………………………………….

Population of the Study …………………………………………..

Sample and Sampling Technique.………………………………

Research Instrument ………….…………….…………………..

Validity of the Instrument…….…………………………………

Reliability of Instrument ………………………………………

Administration of the Instrument ……………………………..

Data Analysis Technique .. …….……………………………….

CHAPTER FOUR: Presentation and Analysis of Data

Results ……………..………………………………………….

Testing of Hypothesis …………………………………………

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary ……………………………………………………..

Conclusion ….………..…………………………..…………..

Recommendations ……………………………………………

REFERENCES ………………………………….………….

APPENDIX………………………………………………….

 

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ABSTRACT

This study focused on the impact of class size on academic performance in Business Studies in junior secondary schools in Oye Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Four research questions were raised for the purpose of effectively carrying out the study, questionnaires were structures to elicit information from respondents. One hundred students were randomly selected from five different schools in the focus area and frequency table, percentage and chi-square techniques were used to analyse the data collected. It was discovered from the study that large class –size is a great challenge in achieving effective learning and teaching of Business Studies, as teachers could hardly prove their efficacy in classes thereby resulting to poor academic performance outcome from students. It was recommended by the researcher that it is necessary to involve student in meaningful and purposeful learning activities based on investigation, examination and observation of their own immediate environment in the teaching of Business Studies. All efforts should be made by everybody in the society to ensure the effective teaching of Business Studies regardless of class size.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of study

Qualitative education remains the fulcrum for global development and freedom. Therefore all hands must be on deal worldwide to formulate polices that will enhance qualitative education right from primary school to tertiary institution and continuous, effective monitoring must be well establish to check all factors that may frustrate this global pursuit. Hence, most societies require children to attend school for a specified number of years or until they reach certain age. Many of the benefits of schooling occur in part because students learn some new knowledge or skills that enhance their ability to communicate, solve problems, and make decisions.

Academic achievement of students especially at the secondary level is not a pointer to the effectiveness or otherwise of schools but a major determinant of the future of youths in particular and the nation in general. The medium through which the attainment of individuals and the nation’s educational goals can be achieved is learning. Learning outcomes have become phenomenon of interest to all and these account for the reason scholars have been working hard to unravel factors that militate against good academic performance (Aremu and Sokan, 2002). This phenomenon has been variedly referred to in literature as academic achievement, or scholastic functioning. Academic achievement of learners has attracted attention of scholars, parents, policy makers and planners.

In an attempt to put sound education on ground worldwide, many factors have been involved as being responsible as for falling standard of education where it is perceived and established. Among such factors is the issue of “class size’’. Adeyemi, (2008) defined class size as an educational tool that can be described as an average number of students per class in a school. While Haffman, (2000) described it as the number of students per teacher in a class. Kidney (2009) described it as a tool that can be used to measure performance of the education system. All Nigerian Conference of Principals of Secondary Schools (ANCOPSS) recommended a maximum of forty students per class for efficient and effective teaching. Dior, (2001), class size has become a phenomenon often mentioned in the educational literature as an influence on pupil’s feelings and achievement, on administration, quality and school budgets. In his words he noted, that class size is almost an administrative decision over which teachers have little or no control. Bray, (2000), observed that they have few teachers with small pools of talent, offer limited range of subject and characteristically finding it hard to justify costly investment on libraries, the pupils lack competition and interest with relatively few peers as they get stocked with same teacher for an entire school career. According to Jordan, (2003), in his analysis of inter-relationship of intelligence, achievement and socio-economic status of high schools concluded that school location among other variables was directly related to mean achievement level of students in all the sampled subjects. The observation which agrees with the findings of Sitkel, (2005) and Walber, (2006) that a significant and consistent relationship exist in the achievement of students in small classes of about 1-20 pupils that obtained higher scores in science tests than their counterparts in large classes are necessary for students achievement. Expressing a divergent view, Silver as cited by Bolton, (2008) found that there was no significant difference in the post test achievement scores between large classes and small classes control groups; he concluded that larger is sometimes better. Earlier Keeves, (2002) acceded that type of school did not make a contribution to academic achievement, however, Carpenter and Western, (2001) found that schools type makes a difference in students’ academic achievement. According to a study conducted in United States, Campbell, (2000) remarked that students from large schools were exposed to larger number of school activities and the best of them achieved standards that were unequaled by students in small schools. Iheanacho, (2002), the classroom is the center of learning activities. It is business center of heavy traffic flow of learners and teacher constituting the key participants. The classroom consist of the physical and social environment. Thus, this study seeks to examine the impact of class size on academic performance in Business Studies in Junior Secondary School in Oye Local Government Area Ekiti state.

Statement of the Problem

In most of Nigeria secondary schools today, the teacher – student ratio has gone far beyond the stipulation in the national policy on education. There are where Students stay more than fifty in each of the classes. The seating arrangements are altered, thereby making teaching and learning difficult and also affect the performance of students. Ozochie, (2009) an education planner, attributed the over – bloated class – size to the explosion of the students’ of school age.

Business Studies, like all other subjects is an activity based subject. The learner is exposed mainly to the practical learning process under the guide and supervision of a teacher. Ozochie, (2009) opines that the result of an effective classroom management is achieved when the teacher and students achieve the purpose of which they are together in a class. Under an overcrowded classroom environment, like what is obtains in most of the schools today, it becomes pertinent to ask, how effective is teaching and learning particularly in subject like Business Studies which requires close monitoring of the learner by the teacher. Therefore, this research study is to look into the impact of class size academic performance in Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools.

Purpose of the Study

The following research purpose have been designed for the study

  1. To find out ways by which class size affects the performance of students of Business Studies.
  2. To examine the effectiveness of the policy guiding teacher-student ratio in junior secondary schools.
  3. To examine how effectiveness of the use of instructional materials in an overcrowded classroom environment.

Significance of the Study

Considering the fact that teaching of Business Studies in large classes is a great problem and a real national issue which is worrying Business Studies teachers of all levels in general and secondary in particular, this study aims to investigate the impact of class size on academic performance in Business Studies with a view to some useful strategies to cope in such atmosphere.

The study is hoped to therefore:

  1. Assist teachers of Business Studies in adopting suitable teaching methods in teaching over-populated classes.
  2. Provide education planners and curriculum planners with ways of combating problems of teaching Business Studies in over-populated classes.
  3. Assist teachers of Business Studies in adopting suitable method in achieving proper classroom management.
  4. Serve as a measure for government to know their weaknesses and thus make provisions for infrastructural and human resources.

Limitation of the Study

This research work is on the impact of class-Size on academic performance in Business Studies in selected Junior Secondary Schools in Oye Local Government Area of Ekiti State and the figures provided therein are based on the responses of the teachers and students of the selected schools, which are believed to cover the entire Local Government Area. This research is limited to this area as a result of some constraints e.g. financial challenges and time factor.

Research Questions

This study is designed to provide answer to the following questions

  1. To what extent will size of the class affect the academic performance of the students?
  2. To What extent will the gender of the students affect the academic performance of the students?
  • To what extent will the location of the school affect the academic performance of students?
  1. To what extent will the instructional materials used affect the academic performance of the students?

Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were raised:

  1. There is no significant relationship between the classroom size and the students’ performances in Business Studies.
  2. There is no significant relationship between the gender of the students and academic performance of students offering Business Studies.
  3. There is no significant relationship between the location of the school and academic performance.
  4. There is no significant relationship between the instructional materials used and the academic performance of the students.

Assumption

The following assumptions are made, since large class-size is one of the major factors affecting the performance of students in secondary schools, the researcher has therefore assumed the following;

  1. Students between the age of 15 and 18 years old are potential participants for the research.
  2. Small class-size should range from 1 to 30 students’ in a classroom for effective transmission of teaching and learning.
  • Large class size, school environment are regarded as problems or factors militating against the performance in the respondents answers.

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter reviews the related literature for the study. The purpose of this chapter is to review pertinent literature and what previous theorist and scholars have done in relation to the study. This chapter represents the review of related literature under the following sub-headings.

  • Fundamental Approaches to Class-size
  • The Concept of Class-size and Academic Performance in Business Studies
  • Impact of Class Size on Students’ Academic Performance
  • The Effect of Class-size on Student and Teacher Behaviour
  • Effect of Class-size on Teaching and Classroom Engagement
  • Class-size and Teacher – Pupils Ratio
  • Benefits of Small Classes
  • Large Class-size and Classroom Interaction
  • The Role of Economic Theory on the influence of Class on Students’ Achievement.
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