impact of training and development in Okititpupa oil mill
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Organization have existed not only to facilitate production but, also, for example to make and enforce legal decision and decide upon and administer government policies. Organizations do not grow by chance. Before they can develop a series of changes in society had occur to sufficient level of scientific and economy development to produce a surplus of resources great enough to release personnel to perform specialized technical roles.
What is an organization? The sociologist defined organization as bodies, persisting over times, which are specially setup to achieve specific aims. Organization defer from community and society not only in having explicit goals, but in the means, used to achieve them. For instance Etizion (1958) stated that organization are characterize by
- Division of labour, of power and of communication and responsibilities such division are deliberately planned to achieve certain goals
- The presence of power-centers which control the concerted efforts of the organization and continuously effort review its performance and re-pattern its structure, where necessary so as to increase its efficiency.
- The substitution of person that is, unsatisfactory person can be remove and other assigned their tasks and people can transferred and promoted.
According to person (1964) organization is a social system which is deliberately constituted are reconstituted to seek specific goal and value where goals are ends to attain and values are thing held sacred-that is, belief value which may be rational or irrational.
Ogbum and Nicoff (1964) gives fives feature common to organization. They include:-
- Collective identity: – that is, organization can be identified by name, function and purpose.
- Membership is discrete. Most organizations have register or way to identify their members and know who belong.
- Definite recruitment process which is laid down.
- Process of denying member of their right and individual privileges e.g church have list of current members, rules for accepting members.
- Formal organization has a purpose of function which the founding fathers are not to achieve e.g universities- to learn.
- It is relatively permanent. It exists overtime from generation to generation. This presupposes that members are less permanent that the organization.
Individual come and go but principle and truth remain and the organization continuous. There are two forms of organization the traditional social organization this include, trab, family and national and the complex form of organization such as manufacturing, educational, medical. The Okitipupa oil palm industry belongs to this complex formal organization.
In order to sustain the life and goal of organization especially business organization, there is the need to recruit well trained, workers. Training is a factor that must be taken into serious consideration in any business organization to sustain and achieve major goals. Training programmes organized in the business organization have one or more of these four objectives.
- Increased productivity
- Increased promotability
- Increased stability of employment.
- Increased safety.
What is training? Training is considered as the process of upgrading the knowledge, developing skills, bring about attitude and behavioural changes, and improving the ability of the trainee to perform tasks effectively and efficiently in organizations (wills, 1994: Palo etal, 2003, Robert etal 2004) . Productivity in any business organization is influenced by skill, knowledge and attitude and hence training programmes are used to increase them. Some organization invest substantial amount of money in training employees already trained.
There are about five type of training available for employees in business organization.
- Orientation Training: – This training is designed to introduce the employee to the employer business and to show how individual duties are related to goals of the entire establishment.
- Safety Training: – Organizations which handle hazardous products or process properbly spend more hours of training on safety than other type of training organizations, which do not have such obvious safety hazards, and small organization regardless of their hazards rarely devote much time to safety education programmes.
- Management Training:-Clerk and Sloan (1958) find that in factories management training was offered more frequently than any type of training except orientation. Much of management training is not in the formal classroom.
- Skill Training: – Instruction on how to perform a job efficiently is another common type of training. It involves simple demonstration by an experienced worker to highly formalized training programmes of four or five years in length.
- One-The-Job Training:- On-the-job training usually demonstration by a first line supervisor followed by a period of trail and error learning with occasional help form supervisor or from nearby workers characterizes the great majority the on-the-job training may be terminated.
- Formalized skill training: – this is emphasized in employment much more frequently during tight is a labour market than when adequate numbers of employee are readily available.
Development affects the organization the organization and personnel in the organization. Development in the organization is aimed at improving the productivity of the organization. Development is aimed at satisfying two kinds of-expectations-the contribution of the individual to the organization and the materials and emotional rewards anticipation by the individual in return. Development includes all activities designed to increase an individual’s ability to perform assignment effectively, whatever the role and whatever the level at which they are performed.
Development is focused on two kinds of activities.
- Those specifically planned and administered by the school system (formal approaches) and
- Those initiated by personnel (informal approaches) organizations have development programme aimed at educating individual about and beyond the immediate technical requirement of positions. Personnel development is aimed at changing the behaviour of those engaged in the process. It is designed to serve the following purpose: personal growth, professional, development, problem solving remedial action, motivation upward mobility and defence/security.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The Okitopupa oil mail is a well-established industry or business organization it is established about 1977 as one of the industries established by the Ondo-State government.
The objective of the organization is to produce quality palm oil. It has its Board of Directors usually appointed by the government. It also has management comprises or headed by general manager with chains of sub-ordinate. The Okititpupa oil palm mill took off with 515.2 hectares of oil palm plantation. It has contribution to social economy growth of the immediate community and Ondo State at large.
The organization accommodates over one thousand staff of difference categories or level status. The organization operates like any other established organization such as recruiting staff, providing on-the-job and outside skill training. It is also gives promotion to the organization cater for both organizational and personal (staff) goals. The organization is involved in training and development programmes
Therefore this study is to determine the impact of training and development going on in the organization on both the organization as an industry and the personnel in the industry.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to determine the impact of training and development in Okititpupa oil mill by way of assessing the procedure, benefit, problems and prospects of training for stability and sustainability of Okitipupa oil mill as a business organization. To be able to accomplish this objective the following specific objective shall be considered;
- The impact of training on the productivity of the palm oil industry,
- To ascertain the importance which the management of Okitipupa oil palm plc. attaches to training programmes as a means of improving the operational knowledge of their staff,
- To determine the effect of training and development on the productivity of the palm oil industry,
- To find out whether courses undertaken are gear toward stability and sustainability of the organization as an entity.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of training and development on Okitipupa oil mail which is a business organization. The outcome of this study will benefit the organization, the staff of the organization, prospective business investors and student of Accounting.
To the organization, it will reveal the essence of training as a way of improving the skills of the workers and enhancing productivity. The investment of the owners of the mill will be justified. As the organization develops, the staff acquires more experience and production becomes increased.
The benefit to the staff will improve production and they will be able to have promotion and earn mare salaries there by improving their life. Staff will be able to reach high level in the organization and feel proud on their level in the organization and fell proud of their jobs.
When adequate training and development are emphasized and the organization progress, it will encourage investors to emphasize training and development in an organization.
Student of accounting will learn more about running a business organization by knowing that training and development are essential ingredients of a progressive business organization
- What is the impact of training on the production of the palm oil industry?
- What is the impact of training on the personnel of the oil palm industry?
- What is the impact of development on the productivity of the palm oil industry?
- What is the impact of development on the personnel in the oil palm industry?
To be able to give adequate answers to the above questions the following Hypotheses shall be tested.
HO- Okitipupa oil palm industry does not pay adequate attention to the training and development of their staff.
HO- That adequate training and development of staff in the oil palm industry will not lead to increase in profit margin and greater productivity, sustainability and stability.
Hamblin (1974) posited that training is “any activity, which deliberately attempt to improve a person’s skill in a job”. Similarly Appleby (1981) in Onanuga (2000) defined training as “creation of learning opportunities in the areas of skill, knowledge and experience in order to enhance the attitude of workers towards their work or duties. When workers possess this, it allows for effective performance of duties as well as enhances prospects of career development”. According to Onanuga (2000) “ the need for training normally arises where there is a marked deviation of an employee’s actual performance standard from the expected. Consequently each employee must have a job description with predetermined performance standard. According to him, a simple formular is that;
Training need = Expected performance – Actual performance.
To this end, three major areas where training is applicable are organization training needs, individual training needs and occupational training needs. This study shall concentrates on individual training needs.
- ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY
The following assumptions are made for this study.
- The okitipupa oil mill is an established business organization
- The organization involve in training and development programme
- The mills produce quality products that make the organization reputable.
- The management of the organization co-operates with the research in carrying out this study.
This chapter deals with the review of related literature. The aim is to find out other people’s view as related to the study. In addition, textbook, Journals, articles and other related pieces will be reviewed to produce a theoretical frame work for the study. This chapter is organized in the following sub-headings.
- Concept of training, development and the organization
- Impact of training on production of organization
- Impact of training on the staff of an organization
- Impact of development on the staff of an organization
- Summary of literature Review