INFLUENCE OF INCENTIVES ON TEACHERS PRODUCTIVITY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE
Background to the study
An incentive is something that motivates an individual to perform an action. The study of incentive structures is central to the study of all economic activities (both in terms of individual decision-making and in terms of co-operation and competition within a larger institutional structure)
The success and the survival of any organization are determined by the way the workers are remunerated and rewarded (Lawler, 2013). The reward system and motivating incentives will determine the level of employees’ commitment and their attitude to work. As noted by Dixit and Bhati (2012) poor incentives packages have been a major factor affecting employees’ commitment and productivity. However, for any organization for achieve it object in any competitive society, employers of labour must have a thorough understanding of what drives the employees to perform efficiently and reward them accordingly (Mueller, 2011). Besides, employees must be motivated through adequate incentives plans and reward systems and this will invariably encourage them to be proactive and have right attitude to work, thereby promote organizational productivity (Armstrong, 2007). However, in a highly dynamic organization, incentives strategies are deployed by employers of labour to ensure that the best brains are retained in the best interest of the organization (Nelson, 2003). Consequently, productivity can only be enhanced if the employees are well motivated through adequate incentive packages that are proportional to their performance (Diener and Biswas, 2002, Stolovich et.al, 2004, Michele and Rob, 2008, Mark 2011). Meanwhile, to avoid wrong perception and controversy by the employees, reward system must be clearly communicated to employees with job measurement which will drive the much needed motivational drive in the employees (Hartman, 2011). Incentives propel and influence employees attitudes in work place and as well stimulate understanding between the employer and the employee which will consequently cumulating into unprecedented performance for both the employees and the organization (Barbara et al. 2003; Heneman 1992). Employee satisfaction and performance are largely influence by incentives packages or reward system put in place by the organization (Osibanjo et al, 2012).
In Nigeria, teachers’ has not been given adequate priority as stipulated in the national policy of education (2004) revised. Teachers are expected to earn both intrinsic and extrinsic reward from work (Etuk, 2002). It is believed that if teachers’ pay, working conditions and fringe benefits given to teachers are judged to be good by the teachers, they will put in more effort at work (Etuk 2002).
The success or failure of any educational system depends mainly on the teachers. This is where effective motivation of teachers’ comes to play. It is a well-known fact that a well-motivated teacher, who is provided with working incentives, good working conditions and adequate remuneration is bound to be dedicated to his/ her teaching so as to bring about the needed learning on the part of students.
It is therefore the duty of a teacher to get the students to do what they are expected to do in order to help the educational system achieve its goal. This will be accomplished by given motivation, the necessary attention and priority its deserves while they are working towards achieving the propose of learning. One of the cardinal reasons for working in life is to satisfy the basic human needs. Onyejiaku (2007), observed that under normal circumstances, individuals choose those occupations which they feel can meet some of their peculiar needs in life. Teachers in the state complain of lack of motivational incentives for them. They complain of lack of fringe benefits of the workers like transport, housing, and medical allowances; lack of payment of leave allowances for many years; lack of recognition, merits awards, bonus and in-service training. It is believed that if teachers’ pay, working conditions and fringe benefits given to the teachers are judged to be good by the teachers, they will put more at work. In other words, they will prepare adequately for their lesson, go to school regularly and punctually, attending classes as schedule, teach the students well, give and mark assignments, test and examination, Etuk (2002).
Statement of the problem
Motivation occupies a central position in the execution of any human task or endeavor, the teaching-learning process is no exemption. This view has been supported by many studies. Obameta (2015), contributing to ways of improving the quality of performance in school says: “what is desired is to make teachers more dedicated and effective by way of motivating the teaching force”. Despite the gains of motivation, low staff motivation is being reflected in deteriorating standards of professional conduct, including serious misbehavior in and outside of school, and poor professional performance. Teacher absenteeism is unacceptably high and rising, time on task is low and falling, and teaching practices are characterized by limited effort with heavy reliance on traditional teacher -centered practices. Teachers are devoting less and less time to extra-curricular activities, teaching preparation, and marking.
The diversity of today work force presents school managers with problems of substantial magnitude. Huge differences among teachers in every institution and work group means that there is no one best way to deal with them. An approach that motivates some staffs to perform well misses the mark with others. This is evident in Nigeria where in recent times the teaching labour front has been plagued with a plethora of industrial unrests agitating for better incentives and working conditions. Fundamentally, education enlarges people’s choices in life through capacity building and transforms people by making them more receptive. In view of the above, the Nigeria government has continued to invest immensely in education with over 40% of the country’s resources being spent on education.It is therefore clear that effective learning is not likely to take place when the teachers who are the major actors in the teaching learning situation are not sufficiently motivated. This may have adverse effects on their productivity and hence the educational standard.
Therefore, this research will focused on the above mentioned problems. The researcher set out to throw more light on Influence of incentives on teachers productivity in senior secondary schools in lagos state
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to investigate Influence if incentives on teachers productivity in senior secondary schools in lagos state
The specific objective will
- To find out if provision of incentives influence teachers productivities in secondary school in Lagos State
- To determine the roles of monetary incentive on teachers productivities
- To find out if promotion influence teachers productivities in secondary school.
- To determine motivational factors that enhance secondary school teachers productivities.
The research questions to guide the study are stated as follows:
- Does provision of incentive influence teachers productivity in secondary schools in Lagos State?
- What significant does monetary incentive play in teachers productivities?
- Does promotion influence teachers productivities in secondary school.
- What are the motivational factors that enhance secondary school teachers productivity?
The hypotheses formulated to establish the statistical validity of the solutions proffered for the research questions are stated as follows:
- Provision of incentives will not significantly improve secondary school teachers productivity in schools
- Monetary incentive does not significant play any roles in improving teachers productivity in secondary schools.
- Teachers promotion does not significantly influence teachers productivities in secondary school.
Significance of the Study
It is hope that the final result of this research work will help in finding possible ways, how incentives can influence productivity/ performance in teaching and learning process and also improve learning on the part of students. It is important for the researcher to put into consideration, the significance of impact staff motivation on secondary schools effectiveness in Lagos State
However this research will be significance in the following ways:
When teachers are being motivated the society / government will benefit immensely in the sense that the teachers put in their best, the students (youth) will contribute properly to the economic growth and development of the nation and the welfare of its citizen. Parents will also benefit when teachers are being motivated in the sense that the student will be responsible to their parents and also the money spent on them will not be in vain because they will help in carry out families responsibilities. Students will benefit equally when teachers are motivated because the research will enable them to enhance and improve their academic performance. The staff also benefit a lot when they positive motivation is given to them in terms of promotion, fringe benefit, salaries are paid at when due they will give in their best in the teaching process. And also their standard of living will improve.
Scope of the Study
The aim of this study is to determine the influence of incentivies on teachers productivity in senior secondary schools in Lagos State. The study will cover ten selected secondary school in Alimosho Local government Area of Lagos State
Definition of Terms
Productivity: is the capability of producing a desired result. When something is deemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid impression.
Motivation: Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behavior. It represents the reasons for people’s actions, desires, and needs. Motivation can also be defined as one’s direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior and vice versa. A motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way, or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior. According to Maehr and Meyer, “Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are.
Teacher: A teacher (also called a school teacher) or educator is a person who provides education for students. The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional qualifications or credentials from a university or college.
Job: A job is an activity, often regular and often performed in exchange for payment. Many people have multiple jobs, such as those of parent, homemaker, and employee. A person can begin a job by becoming an employee, volunteering, starting a business, or becoming a parent. The duration of a job may range from an hour (in the case of odd jobs) to a lifetime (in the case of some judges). An activity that requires a person’s mental or physical effort is work (as in “a day’s work”). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession. The series of jobs a person holds in their life is their career.
Performance: A performance, in the performing arts, generally comprises an event in which a performer or group of performers present one or more works of art to an audience. Usually the performers participate in rehearsals beforehand. Afterwards audience members often applaud.