THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL BACKGROUND ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS
Background of the Study
From the beginning, parents have been the major person involved in raising children in every society. This is why the family is recognised as an important agent of socialization.
Adejaeyi (2002) observes that it is mainly through their efforts and abilities that children are socialized to become productive citizens so, wherever parents possess the resources and skill and apply them effectively and joyfully in raising their children the entire society benefits.
This brings joy and pride to the nation and encourages development and peaceful co- existence the children themselves feel good and bring happiness to their parents and the whole community.
In light of this, the influence of family background on the academic performance of pupils become an indispensable factor in the wheel of progress. It is a fact that parental background influences pupils academic performance either positively or negatively. A well to do family will have positive interest in the education of their children.
The primary function of parents is the rearing and protection of children and passing on to them the values and beliefs of the society. They also teach children the rules, traditions and ways of doing things. It is also the responsibility of the parents to provide their children with shelter, food, education, security and personal development. This is the basis of family orientation.
The level of educational attainment of parents influences the academic performance of their children for instance, in a family where both the mother and the father are educated; their children are always taken good care of in respect of their academic activities. They may go through their children’s exercise books after schools or even employ private teacher to teach them after school. By so doing their academic performance will be improved. Whereas in the case of illiterate family, the need to supervise their children’s home work could be hardly possible, hence this reason contributes to poor academic performance of their children.
It is obvious to note that the level of performance of a child educationally also depends on the hereditary factors and the environmental factor that he finds himself.
Hereditary factors influence a child academic performance in school. This happens when a child inherits poor genes from either the mother or the father; such a child will not be able to achieve much even if the environment is conducive for effective learning. On the other hand, a child who inherits a very high genes from parents may not perform very well if the environment is not stimulating.
A conducive environment is necessary for a good academic performance of a child. A stimulating environment could spur up a potential mediocre into an intellectual ground while an inhibiting environment could turn a genius child into a mediocre. Parents are once more reminded of their divine and practical responsibilities of their pupils. Our school system and society will be more disciplined and functional.
Statement of the Problem
This study intends to pin- point the influences of parental background on the academic performance of pupils in schools. The influence of parental background, that is, the socio- economic status of parent has been identified as one of the issues posing serious problem in the academic achievement of the pupils in the primary schools. Also, some parent can’t afford to provide adequate balance diet for their children which can affect academic performance of children; Not that alone, Educational level of parent could affect the academic performance of a school pupil. Hereditary is also identified as part of what a child can inherit from their parents as this could negatively affect academic performance of their children.
Living in conducive environment is one of the inhibit factors that affect academic performance of children and also in- ability of parents to live together as a result of divorce may impede children academic performance.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of parental background on the academic performance of pupils in some selected primary schools in Ise- Ekiti Local Government Area Ekiti State. The objectives of the study specifically include;
- Identifying the influence of parental background as it affects the academic performance of their children.
- Carrying out controlled study and investigate home environment and facilities in these homes for children educational development with special reference to Ise- Ekiti Local Government Area.
iii. Seek to suggest the possible solution to the problem so as to enhance pupils’ academic performance in schools.
Significance of the Study
This study is to highlight the influence of family background on the academic performance of pupils in primary school in Ise- Ekiti Local Government Area. This study is therefore significant because of the following reasons;
- It will highlight the problems associated with pupils’ performance in school.
- The result of the study will also uncover the fundamental roles expected of the parents in respect to the intellectual training of the pupils.
iii. The study will also serve as a source for future research in other area of study.
- The outcome of this study will also be of immense value to the inhabitants of the area in and it will seek to improve the interest of parents with regards to education.
- Finally, it is hoped that when this research work is completed, the learners, parents, teachers, ministry of education, curriculum planners, government and the entire society will benefit from the finding by formulating a policy that will bridge the gap between children of high socio- economic status and that of the low socio- economic status in respect of their academic performance in school.
Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is delimited, to only seven primary schools in Ise- Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
The seven primary schools are as follows;
- Ansar – un- deen Primary School Ise- Ekiti.
- C.A.C. Nursery and Primary School Ise- Ekiti.
iii. Emmanuel Nursery and Primary School Ise- Ekiti.
- St Theresa Catholic Primary School Emure- Ekiti.
- All Saints Primary School Emure- Ekiti.
- Ife- Oluwa Nursery and Primary School Emure- Ekiti.
vii. L.A. Primary school Emure- Ekiti.
For the human resources only pupils in primary four, five and six in the above named schools serves as the primary source of data collection.
- Is there any difference between the academic achievement of pupils whose parents are of higher socio- economic class and the academic achievement of pupils whose parents are low socio- economic class?
- Is there any difference between academic achievement of pupils from educated parental background and pupils from uneducated parental background?
iii. Is there any difference between the academic performance of pupils from poor, average and higher parental background?
- Does the family background influence the academic performance of pupils?
- How does the socio- economic status of parents affect their pupils’ academic career?
- There is no significant difference between the academic performance of pupils from poor, average and higher parental background.
- There is no significant difference between the academic achievement of pupils whose parents are of higher socio- economic class and the academic achievement of pupils whose parents are low socio- economic class.
iii. There is no significant difference between academic achievement of pupils from educated parental background and pupils from uneducated parental background.
- There is no significant in socio- economic status of parents that affect their pupils’ academic career.
Definition of Terms
Influence: This is the power to affect somebody character, benefits or action through example.
Family: This refers to a social unit consisting of parents and their children.
Parents: This refers to the one who has begotten offspring or occupies the role of mother or father.
Academic Performance: This refers to how much the pupils respond to the teaching and learning of the formal school successfully especially using their own effort and skill.
Pupil: This is a person who is being taught, especially, a child in a school.
Low Socio- economic status: This refers to families whose what they are earning is very low compare with others, that is, their daily or monthly take home is very little, Such as cleaners, housemaid.
Middle socio- economic status: this refers to families whose are fairly paid such as, teachers in primary school, secondary teachers.
High socio- economic status: this refers to families whose are highly paid such as, professor, minister, honorable, Doctor.