PARENT ATTITUDE TOWARD THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
Background to the study
Children manifest different character at different stages of growth and development. It is the responsibilities of the parent to study these formative years of their children coupled with the best education that will suit each formative year. No action in childhood is meaningless or without purpose but because some parent do not understand them, the children are misinformed from outside about some crucial issues of life such as sex. Owanamam (2003).
Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life (WHO, 2002). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) sexuality encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviuors, practices, roles and relationships. Sexuality is often broadly defined as the social construction of a biological drive (WHO, 2002) which often deals with issues such as whom one has sex with, in what ways, why, under what circumstances and with what outcomes a person engages in sex (NACC, 2002). Thus, sexuality pertains to the totality of being human – being a female or male – and this suggests a multidimensional perspective of the concept of sexuality which is shaped by biological, psychological, economic, political, social, cultural and religious factors operating within a particular culture in each society.
There is the period of transition to maturity in every child. At the end of this stage the child becomes an adult. He now understands rules which they accept as laws that must never be broken. The responsibility of the parents during these stage are to lay more emphases on the teaching that deals with moral because morality can only develops when people know what is right and wrong Daroch (2000).
Sex education has not been given much attention in our school systems and this creating a lot of problems among our youths in all education levels. The alarming rules of early pregnancies have motivated efforts to the need to educate our students on matters of sex and thereby delay their practices of sex till maturity or after marriage when they will be ripe for it.
Population growth in the world if not controlled, the earth will not be able to accommodate the additional growth at human population in few years to come.
The population is therefore kept in control in the developed countries by decreasing birth rates through the method of sex education being introduced into the school curriculum and family planning methods where the use of condoms and other types of contraceptive are being taught. Daroch (2000) about 40% of all the young women might have become pregnant before they turn twenty years (Alan Cuttenancher Institute 2004).
There are many advocators in the support of the introduction of sex education in the school curriculum such as Doyle J, Egendorf L, Forrest S, Vicki S, Oakley A, to name just few. These are the educationists, medical practitioners, social welfare workers, parents, mass media and the government. The people in support of the opinion of sex education have different views as to what sex education is, how it can be introduced and the agencies that should be responsible.
This research work is therefore carried out grades at which it is desirable into the school curriculum, the method of organizing the programme, the content and the role of government as regards sex education. The research work will also be used to bring out the consequences of privative reproductive behaviours in young children, the disadvantages or the effect of the use of contraceptives, the reason behind some parent rejection of sex education and how they can be made to be involved in giving sex education to their children as well and not under the school setting alone.
Statement of the problem
The issue of sex education brings out the fact that emphasis will be placed on one of the major problems going on in the schools in particular and the society in general.
Sex education has been a problem in the school system in the areas of how the students, parents and society perceive what it is and how it should be organized in the formal school system.
The problems centered on the following areas
- What sex education is
- Age grades that should be involved in the system
- Agencies to handle sex education
- Environment under which its desirable
- Its inculcation and contents in the school curriculum
- The fear of parents about sex education
Therefore, the focus of this study is on the problems highlighted and the appropriate solution
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to enlighten the parents as well as the students especially the ones in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State on the concept of sex education, effects, age grades to which sex education is desirable, its content and agencies to handle it, the study is said to achieve the following objectives
- To find out the opinions of Christian and Muslim parents about sex education
- To determine the reasons for the need of sex education in the school system
- To determine the age grades to be taught
- To determine when and where to teach sex education
- To determine the agency that should handle it
- To determine the effects of sex education in schools
Significance of the study
The impact of sex education through this research work will go a long way in making our youths and adolescents in schools to live happily and reduce the risk of unwanted pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and other sexual transmitted deceases. The following advantages will be achieved through this research work.
- The outcome of the study will help to educate the parents, adults and students about the concept of sex education.
- The result of the study will also help the teachers, both Christian and Muslim parents to have necessary information on how to cope with constant anxieties, scandals and numerous of students about sex education.
- It will enable some voluntary organizations, like Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (P.P.F.N), the National Council of Men and Women Christian Society (N.C.M.C.S) address themselves to societal problems especially in relation to sex education among youths and thereby embarking on the likely solution towards them.
- It will help the ministry of education to plan and establish training for the drop outs and delinquent youths in order to make them learn and thereby become useful to the community.
- It will check the high rate of prostitution and unmarried mothers within our society.
- Reduction of drug addiction among our ladies.
- It will also check the problems of rapid rate of our population in our country.
The following research questions have been raised to guide the study.
- How did the parents understand the concept of sex education?
- Why do we need sex education in the schools?
- Do the parents support or agreed that sex education should be inculcated into the school curriculum?
- At what age do the parents believe that sex education should start with the children?
- What do the parents think should be the content of sex education in the school curriculum?
- Which agencies should be responsible for the teaching of sex education?
The hypothesis on which this study will be based on is, null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.
The null hypothesis will be represented by Ho why the alternative hypothesis will be represented by Hi
Ho: Schools are not required to teach comprehensive sex education
H1: schools are require to teach to teach comprehensive sex education
Ho. Sex education programmes will not reduce sexual behaviour risk in school adolescents
Ho: Sex education programmes will reduce sexual behavior risk in school adolescents.
Definition of Terms and Variables
Sex: is the copulation between the pennies and the female vagina where the dynamic potential to create life exist in the past, present or future from said union.
Education: it is the aggregate of all process by which a child or young adult develops the abilities, attitudes and forms of behaviour which are positive value to the society in which he lives.
Sex education: sex education is a process of making the individual to develop a positive and wholesome attitude towards sex.
Adolescence: adolescence is a Latin verb which means “to grow up” into maturity. It is therefore referred to as the transition period between childhood and adulthood.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This study has drawn inspiration from the following related work on sex education:
- The concept of sex education.
- The age grades at which sex education is desirable.
- Agency that should be responsible for the teaching of sex education in the formal school system.
- In corporation of sex education into the formal school curriculum.
- What should be the content in the school curriculum.
- The fear of some parents who did not support sex education.
- The implication of sex education