PARENT AND TEACHERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE USE OF CORPORAL PUNISHMENT IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN IDO – OSI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI- STATE.
This research was carried out among the parents and teachers in Ido – Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
It was researched on parents and teachers attitude towards the use of corporal punishment in primary schools.
The samples used in this study were two hundred and twenty one teachers and parents in various schools in different towns in Ido – Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
The instruments used to collect information from teachers and parents were questionnaires. Administered on the teachers and parents in ten randomly selected schools in Ido – Osi Local Government. The responses were scored and subjected to statistical analysis using frequency counts and percentages.
From the findings, it was discovered that;
- Pupils are scared of the sight of the teacher that usually use cane and hence they do not concentrate on their work.
- Corporal punishment has negative effect on learning
- The use of cane does more evil than good
- The use of cane may result in physical damages.
- Nolmacy is restored in schools when the use of cane is implored.
- The set of indiscipline in school nowadays can be attributed to inadequate use of corporal punishment.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents viii-x
List of Tables xi
- Background to the study 1-5
- Statement to the study 5
- Purpose of the study 5
- Research Questions 5-6
- Significance of the study 6
- Limitation of the study 6
- Definition of Terms 6-7
REVIEW OF LITERATURE 8
- Concepts of Corporal Punishment 8-12
- Modern view about Corporal Punishment 12-13
- Government Attitude Towards the use of
Corporal punishment 13-14
- View of some scholars in support of corporal punishment 14-15
- Views of some scholars who are against the
use of corporal punishment 15-17
- Traditional view of corporal punishment 17-19
- Corporal punishment in contemporary society 19-20
- Corporal punishment in context of the school 20-21
- Conclusion 21
- Research Methodology 22
- Research Design 22
- Population 23
- Sample 23-25
- Research Instrument 25
- Research Procedure 25-26
- Validity of the Instrument 26
- Reliability of the Instrument 26
- Administration of the Instrument 26-27
- Analysis of Data 27
- Results and Discussion 28-39
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 40
- Summary 40-41
- Recommendation 41-42
- Conclusion 43
Appendix: A: Teachers questionnaire 45-48
B: Parents Questionnaire 49-51
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1: Psychological and Emotional Effects of Corporal Punishment on Learning Process of the Pupils.
Table 2: Physical Effect of Corporal Punishment.
Table 3: Parents and Teachers View about the use of Corporal Punishment.
Table 4: Effective of Corporal Punishment as a Corrective Measure of Discipline.
1.1 Background to the study
The term corporal punishment is a popular one with which both parents and teachers as well as pupils all over the world are familiar, it has come to stay in the school system.
The oxford English Dictionary defined it as punishment inflicted on both the body, originally including death, mutilation usually confined to flogging.
Another oxford learner dictionary the sixth edition also defined corporal punishment as the physical punishment of people, especially by writing or beating them.
Symond (1976) defines corporal punishment as something that hurts, inflicted by one person in the form of body pains.
According to Wilson (1971) corporal punishment is the infliction of a kind of pain which it is right the individual should suffer not for breaking the rule of a control but for moral wrong – doing. In other words for fault “discipline”.
Critically looking at the definitions given by some scholars and quoted above, we could see that the term is used to discipline. The use of cane, not peculiar to school but as well as in the home.
The use of corporal punishment in our institutions has been in existence for a long period. No body knows the specific time it was first introduced but it could be linked with the period of introduction of formal education, in most West Africa countries. The history of this formal education can be trace back to the Greek period where the use of bodily pain featured nakedly in their education system, most especially in Spartan than Athens. It was taken to be some of the exercises their children should undergo to be tough and responsible soldiers and defend their city during war.
Spartan youths were exposed to through beating not only when they disobey or misbehave but as a sort of training, so that surrendered themselves for severe flogging and prizes were awarded to anybody who could endure the greatest lashes without uttering a word
This same practice also featured in Ancient Roman schools, where severe flogging of pupils was rampart in public schools. This practice of inflicting corporal punishment is also emphasized in Christian religion. In proverb chapter 29 versed 17 in the bible, it is written “chastise your son and he will bring you rest and give much pleasure to your soul”. Verse 15 of the same chapter says “the rod and reproof are what give wisdom but a boy left on the loose will be causing his mother shame”.
It is then neither an under statement when we say the advent of corporal punishment can be linked with the period of the introduction of formal education by the Christian missionaries to most parts of African, since the gospel they preached emphasizes the use of cane as important aspect of discipline.
The use of cane is not restricted to Christian alone, it is also used in non – Christian homes. It is widely accepted that to bring up proper and responsible children the rod must be spared.
The cane too was formerly used in british public schools until it was banned by law in the 2nd half of 20th century. The same thing is applicable to Russia early as 1945
In the olden days, even at 1960’s, Nigerian teachers were associate with cane to the extent that their pupils were scared of their sight even after the school period. The mere threatened of a naughty boy that he would reported to the then accepted that the teacher’s dress was not complete without having a cane in his hand. Even, is now believed that only the use of cane or corporal punishment could make the pupils learn. It is the only way by which the teacher can control his pupils and that it is only the fear of cane that can stop the undesirable behavioural pattern of any child.
Some parent’s plead is that teachers should not spare the rod in the training of their young ones. They are willing to and often to go further in surrendering all the children’s life into their hands this reveals how parents greatly believed that only the use of cane could train their children and reformed them from bad behaviours.
The cane continued to be in used almost all part of the country without the government intervention. In this study, corporal punishment will be restricted to canning, beating, flogging and whipping and not just any form of punishment which may came in form of depriving or frustration imposed by one person or another for instance depriving a child of food for a wrong deed like telling lies or stealing
1.2 Statement of the Problem.
The study intends to investigate teachers and parents attitude towards the use of corporal punishment in primary schools in Ido – Osi local government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of the research is to compare teachers attitude to that of parents on the question of using cane in primary schools in Ido – Osi, local government Area of Ekiti – State.
- Research Questions
- Has corporal punishment got psychological and emotional effect on learning activities of the pupils?
- Is there any significance difference in parents and teachers thoughts about the use of corporal punishment?
- Has the use of corporal punishment has any effects on learning act processes?
- Is there any effect of corporal punishment act as a means of correcting measure in discipline.
- Significance of the study
The result of this study will give the Government an insight into the topic from there, which will be able to decide whether to re-introduce it officially or cancel it totally. It will also give the parents and teachers view about the use and the difference or similarities in their views and attitudes.
Lastly to recommend to the school administrators and teachers, the best way of handling disciplinary problems in Nigeria primary schools apart from corporal punishment.
- Limitation of study
This study is limited to Ido – Osi Local Government Area. It cannot be extends to others due to the transportation and in adequate time of this study.
- Definition of Terms
- Punishment: Causes somebody suffering or discomfort for wrong doing.
- Attitude: Means way of feeling, thinking or behaving.
- Corporal Punishment: Is define as something that hurts, influenced by one person in the form of bodily pain.
- Ward: One of the areas into which a city is divided and which elects and is represented by a member of the local council.
- Discipline: the practice of training people to obey rules and orders and punishing them if they do not obey.
Institution: A large important organization this has a particular purpose.