POULTRY PRODUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKITI STATE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
II REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Area of the Study
Population of the Study
Sample of the Study
Instrument for Data Collection
Validation of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Administration of the Instrument
IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Considering the importance of poultry and poultry products in our society and for the fact that lager percentage of protein requirement is derived from poultry prompting me into researching the poultry production in Ekiti State Secondary school. The research was specially designed with the use of questionaire to look into some areas of poultry production, as in the objective of the study such as to identify the number of secondary schools having poultry, management system adopted, population of bird reared and problems involved in keeping of poultry birds. The population of the study consist of secondary schools, the data from the responses were analysed using simple percentage, from the study the following were discovered. That only one-third (1/3) of the secondary schools in Ekiti State keep poultry. That schools keep mainly domestic fowl (Gallus gallus). That management system adopted by the schools is extensive system. That poultry keeping is mainly for academic purpose. That high cost of feed, lack of capital and pest and diseases are the major problems facing poultry in schools.
Background of the Study
The word poultry refers to all birds that man has been able to rear over the years. He has decided to rear or domesticate them because of their economic value to him.
Poultry is a collective group of any bird reared or hunted for useful purpose. Birds are feathered animals, poultry includes the various birds which are domesticated, such may include Domestic fowl, Turkey, Guinea fowl, Ducks, gease, pigeon, Turtle, Ostritches Quails e.t.c.
Most of the birds or all of them have been domesticated and are managed on the same principle of the domestic fowl is the most common poultry families, that is why poultry is usually considered synonymous with chickens by the local farmers because they are reared more often than any other species of poultry and are more profitable and useful to the farmers in term of meat and egg production.
There are more than three hundred breeds of the domestic fowls. According to the polyphyletic theory all breeds of the domestic fowl(Gallus domesticus ) originated from four different species of birds (fowl)
- Gallus gallus (Red jungle fowl of south East Asia)
- Gallus lafayetti (Red jungle fowl)
- Gallus sonneratti (grey jungle fowl)
- Gallus varius (The javan jungle fowl with green colour).
In the past poultry was kept as a hobby, game (cock fighting ), kept for religious purpose, as a means of knowing when day time is near, as a sign of purity for economic reasons,meat and egg production
In Nigeria there are yet very few large specialized poultry producers ,most families own some poultry from which eggs and occasionally meat are obtained for food. Hence poultry keeping is not foreign to West Africa.
Poultry keeping in Nigeria generally follows traditional live without the innovations which modern scientific researchers have introduced. Thus the birds, under this system, are characterized by slow rate of growth, low productivity with low feed efficiency and heavy parasitic and disease infection.
In Nigeria today, the highest proportion of meat we consume comes from poultry (FAO,1985) that is Nigeria consumes about 258 metric tonnes of poultry meat, which represents about 31.9% of the total meat consumption in Nigeria. This is in addition to the 230,000 metric tonnes of egg that are supplied by poultry for consumption.
Poultry is widely distributed throughout the whole world because of the following reasons.
- It can fit into small farm areas.
- It can thrive in poor land
- It has fast rate of multiplying
- It has high feed conversion rate
- It forms highly excellent food that can easily be processed.
It is generally accepted that the modern poultry is kept for the following reasons
- source of income
- it provides employment opportunity.
- For recreation
- For human consumption
- Source of protein
- Feathers are used for making pillows
- For poultry manure
- For game
- Traditionally used for ritual purposes
- Eggs are essential materials for baking
It is noted that, the attitude of the people towards poultry production in the country is not encouraging. This has extended to secondary schools in Ekiti state. Over 70% of the schools in the state and indeed in the country do not keep any type of livestock (Fatunsin 2013). Majority of the schools normally engage in cultivation of foods crops. The reasons could be due to.
- the greater risk involve in poultry production.
- Shortage and high cost drugs and vaccines
- Lack of skilled personnel in the management of poultry.
- Shortage and high cost of feeds
- High initial capital for the establishment of poultry.
With the increased demand for protein food in the country, it is important that schools and colleges as well as local farmers should be encouraged to keep poultry, because it is estimated that egg and poultry meat rank with cow’s milk as the most economically produced animal protein for the mass population.
Statement of the Problems
In secondary school curriculum for agriculture, there is emphasis on the establishment of livestock in schools for the purpose of practical. Agriculture in west African school certificate Examination. This is to put to practice what is taught in the class. The demand for animal protein has been on the increase. The output of the few poultry farmers is low because many of them produced on a small scale.
The researcher believes that schools can compliment what the farmers are producing. The study seeks to find out to what extent the schools are involved in poultry production.
Purpose of the Study
This research work was designed to find out the extent to which poultry production has been achieved in various secondary schools in Ekiti state. In so doing the study attempted to investigate and examine the following
- To identity the number of secondary schools that keep poultry in Ekiti state
- To examine types of poultry kept.
- To identify types of housing employed.
- To identify the manpower needed for practicing poultry in second schools
- to find out population of birds reared in the secondary school
- find out the purpose of keeping the bird and resources available for keeping poultry in secondary school
- To identify problem of poultry production in secondary school
- Recommend the ways of improving poultry production in the secondary school
Significance of the Study
It is the belief of the researcher that the out-come of this research will go along way to
- Intimate the government teacher and parents of the student of the need to supports of school in providing equipment for poultry production
- Enable both the local and federal government to fund the schools adequately to provide input for poultry production
- Encourage the students to be self-employed on poultry business
- It will create awareness of the school management to benefits that’s could be derived in poultry production
- It will also help to give useful recommendation on possible solution to the problem facing poultry production in Ekiti State
The following research questions are formulated for the study
- How many secondary schools are keeping poultry in Ekiti State?
- What are the types of poultry kept in the schools?
- What breed of poultry are they keeping?
- What are the physical facilities available for keeping poultry?
- Which type of production are they involving in, is it egg production or meat production?
- Which is the management system adopted in the schools?
- What is the population of the birds reared in the schools?
- What is the source of capital for the poultry farm?
- What is the students activities in poultry farm?
- What are the diseases that attack the poultry birds?
- What are the measures adopted for handling the problem of pest and diseases?
- What are the challenging normally encounter in keeping poultry in secondary schools?
- What are the purpose for keeping poultry in the schools?
- What are consumers of the production being it egg or meat?
- What are the suggested solution towards solving problems associated with poultry farm in schools?
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