PROBLEM OF INEFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
The guest for improved teaching of Agricultural Science in Nigeria has made scholars and researchers to focus attention on instructional materials. Availability of instructional materials and competence of teachers in using them are important components of a result-oriented teaching of Agricultural Science. Hence, the study investigated the problems of ineffective utilization of instructional materials in teaching Agricultural Science in secondary schools in Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria.
Five research questions were raised. Towards providing answers to the questions, a well-structured questionnaire was designed and administered on a sample of twenty teachers of Agricultural Science that were randomly selected from the population of the study. Likert-type rating scale was used to analyse the data collected.
The results revealed that professionally qualified teachers of Agricultural Science are in short supply and availability of instructional materials are inadequate and dysfunctional. The results further revealed that non-use of excursion method in teaching Agricultural Science in secondary schools.
Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that teachers should possess teaching qualification; adequate and functional instruction materials should be provided in schools and that excursion method of teaching should be re-activated in schools.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Delimitation of the Study
Definition of Term
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Concept of Instructional Materials in Education
Source of Instructional Materials
Importance of Instructional Materials
Some General Problems in Teaching and Learning of Agricultural Science
Summary of Literature Review
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Validation of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Administration of the Instrument
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Presentation of the Result
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION
Limitation of the Study
Suggestions for Further Study
Background to the Study
Agriculture in both ancient and modern days has been generally accepted as valuable subject particularly as it engages almost eighty percent (80%) of the country population by providing gainful employment and also providing food for the rapidly growing population to prevent starvation and malnutrition. Agricultural science is one of the major science courses taught in Nigeria secondary schools.
Many of the graduate of Nigeria Universities trained as a specialist of Agriculture for instance, accept teaching jobs in many schools using this as opportunity and steping stone to prepare their ground for better offer in future. The few teachers of Agricultures that remains do not have adequate professional training because, yet, they are no enough programmes in Agriculture to trains its teachers.
The basic problem is therefore an acuts shortage of professionally training, competent teacher of Agriculture in the secondary schools and teacher training colleges skilful teacher employs different techniques to make his class more effective and interesting in order to this objective, the teacher will employ the use of instructional materials. According to Erickson (1085), instructional materials increases the rate at which learners save the teachers time and effort, increases interest and facilitates retention of what was learned moreover before any learning could take place, there should be a well structure and organized curriculum. Also the teaching environment will not only involve the classroom for the explanation of concept and theories but also put the working environment for the jobs training consideration emphasis has been laid on the practical aspect of the course in West Africa Examination Council syllabus. A teacher of Agricultural science is not only a teacher but also an innovator in Agriculture, hence his role difference to some extent from other in the school system. He is expected to deal with cognitive, psychomotor and effective outcome of the subjective and he is look upon as a master of definite skills. This means, he is expected to educate pupils as well helping them to acquire skills in Agriculture for proper teaching and learning, there must be prompt and adequate use of instructional materials.
Instructional materials are materials or items and devices used to supplement written or spoken words in the transmission of attitude, knowledge, and ideas to emphasis and clarify the instructions. The teaching of Agricultural science can be made more effective by use of locally available teaching materials (Ige 1977) remarked that what I hear, I forget, what I see, I remember, and what I do, I understand. Therefore, the teacher of Agricultural science is expected to be familiar with variety of teaching aids and their uses in teaching and learning process, students learns better and should interest in what they see, smell, touch, and task. It is a good for proper teaching that teachers could move from simple to complex and from known to unknown Oliatan (1984) remarked that some teacher have misconception about teaching aids, many believes that these have been sophisticated or professional to be effected or that the most combine seem and talking (audiovisual) before they can be recognized as teaching aids. Materials many also be audio, visual or audiovisuals. The instructional materials includes those experience and device used in a teaching situation which employ the use of sight and or sound. These experience and device fall into three (3) categories
Projected materials: These includes, film strip, motion pictures, radio, television, and demonstration, forms and other related projected equipments.
Non projected materials: These are graph, object, specimen model map, sketches of tree, animals etc demonstrative boards, field trip, globas, text books, and reference book
Audio materials: Like records and player tape and tape recorders.
All these are use to make teaching more effective and proper use of teaching materials will help to give first concept correctly stimulates interest, promote better understanding of the lesson and add variety to teaching method.
Statement of the Problem
It has been observed that graduates of Agricultural science who are expected to be self reliant still seek for white collar jobs, also a study by Jekayinfa reveal that the performance of students set for Agricultural science, especially (S.S.C.E) a decade ago was very poor with respect to these, it is not clear that whether: The instructional materials needed to teach Agricultural science are available in schools.
They are qualified Agric science teachers in schools and also to justifies their towards the use of instructional materials
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the cause of the problem of ineffective utilization of instructional materials in teaching Agricultural science subject in secondary schools, possible effect on the academic development of the students. The study is hope to be of importance to government and private educators that if the effect are known then effort will be intensities on how to correct them and thereby improve on the standards and effective use of the instructional aids in teaching learning process.
The following research question were generated to guide the study
- Are there qualified Agricultural science teacher to teach the subject in secondary schools in Ikere, local government?
- What are the criterion and method for choosing or using instructional materials for effective teaching of the subject?
- What are the instructional materials available in schools to teach the subjects?
- What are the attitude of the teachers towards the use of instructional materials in teaching Agric. Science?
- How adequate and updated is the curriculum designed to teach the subject.
Significance of the Study
The result of this study will provide the basis for importance of the use of the appropriate instructional materials needed to teach Agricultural science in schools with standards instructional materials and qualified teachers in place, The massive failure that study has shown so far will be checked, secondly, occasional review of text, instructional aids and workshop will make for the inclusion of new knowledge, such new knowledge will provide the necessary information to help to keep learners abreast with current research findings.
Delimitation of the Study
The study will be conducted in Ikere local government in Ekiti State, Nigeria. It will focus on the problem of ineffective utilization of instructional materials while the study will cover ten (10) secondary schools in the area.
Definition of Terms
- Agriculture:- This means, the production, conservation and regulations of basic raw materials used for foods from plant animals and availability ad comfort that are best available for the consumers used
- Agricultural science:- This is defined as an integrated subject in which all areas of science such as, physics, chemistry and biology etc are well combine and applied for the production of craps and animals resources in addition to the intelligence use of the soil.
- Agricultural Education: It is defined as the educational system that prepare person to engage in the acquisition of forming skills for maximum production plants and animals resources.
- Vocational Agriculture: According to Alademerin (1968) It is defiend as the sum of all curriculum planning and its effective implementation in Agriculture in all faces of our education system from pre-primary to the tertiary level leading to productive ventures in plant and animal resources for the benefit to mankind’s.
- Instructional Materials: Is the sum of all resources materials including the real situation, direct experience and activities used by teacher to relate instructions to real life/ it enable teachers to teach effectively and also learners to learn more understandably.
- Improvisation: This was to do with the use of alternative materials in the absence of real materials for instructions while teaching.
- Instruction: These are statement pass across to student either in the classroom on the filed.
- Concept map: This is a skeletal framework containing the key point or in a course unit or topic which has relationship with one another.
- Qualified Teacher:- The teacher of Agricultural science so trained to be able to disseminate information to the students and make them acquire skill that can prepare them for future e.g. N.C.E, Bsc.
- Audiovisuals:- These are instructional materials designed to aids agricultural science programmes on the Television video, films etc.
- Non projected materials: These involves graph objects, specimen and model map.
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