THE RATE OF CONSUMPTION AND ADVERSE EFFECT OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS ON HIGHER INSTITUTION IN EKITI STATE
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of Content
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Significant of the Study
Area of the Study
Definition of Terms
Review of related Literature
Adverse effect of psychoactive drugs
on students cognitive, social and physical performance
Rate of drug abuse among students in higher institution in
Nigeria and other countries.
Types of psychoactive drugs found in energy drinks (Caffeine)
Prevention and treatment of addiction to psychoactive drugs
Theoretical studies done on psychoactive drugs
Area of Study
Population of the study
Sample and sampling techniques
Instrument for data collection
Method of data collection
Validity of the instruments
Result and discussion
The study investigated psychoactive substance consumption and awareness of health effect among students in tertiary institutions in Ekiti state. A total of 150 students were randomly sampled from three institutions in Ekiti state. A structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data for the study. Chi-square and t-test statistics were used to variety hypothesis one to three, respectively. Result showed a high consumption of alcohol, tobacco, caffeine and marijuana by participants. Also, there was a significant difference in the extent to which male and female participant s consumed psychoactive drugs factors such as weight control, acceptance by others desire to experiment and peer group interaction were the rationale for psychoactive substance consumption among the participants. However, there was no significant difference between psychoactive substance users and non-users on the reasons for substance use. Aggressiveness, sleeplessness, tension and headache were the leading health effects.
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1.1 Background of the study
Lewinson, 2007 defines a drug as any product other than food or water that affects the way people feel, think, see, and behaves. It is a substance that due to its chemical nature. it can enter the body through chewing, inhaling, smoking, drinking, rubbing on the skin or injection.
Psychoactive drugs are drugs that are used for purpose other than medical reasons; thus affecting the individual in a negative way socially, cognitively or physically. Kuria , 1996. Social effects may be reflected in an individual’s enhanced tendency to engage in conflicts with friends, teacher and school authorities. Cognitive effects relate to the individual lack of concentration on academic work and memory loss physical effects.
A psychoactive drug also known as pharmaceutical or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood or consciousness. These substance may be used recreationally to purposefully alters one’s consciousness or as entheogens for ritual, spiritual or shamanic purposes, as a tools for studying or augmenting the mind .Examples of psychoactive drugs.
- Club drugs
- Nicotine in cigarette
Psychoactive substance often bring about subjective [although may be objective observed] changes in consciousness and mood that user may find rewarding and pleasant [e.g] Euphoria] or advantageous [ e.g. increase alertness ] and are thus reinforce any substance which are both rewarding and positively reinforce have the potential to induce a state of addiction compulsive drugs use despite negative consequence which used consistently in excess.
Alcohol is a widely used and abused psychoactive drug. The global alcohol drinks market was expected to exceed 1 trillion in 2013. Beer is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. Psychoactive drug use can be traced to prehistory. There is archaeological evidence of the use of psychoactive substance [mostly plants] dating back least 10,000 years, and historical evidence of cultural use over the past 5000 years.
The chewing of coca laves for examples that back usage. However, is one important facet of psychoactive drugs usage to alter one’s consciousness is as primary as the drive to satiate thirst, hunger or sexual desires?
Supporters of this belief contented that the history of drugs use and even students in higher institution desire for spinning , swinging orb sliding indicates that the drive to alters’ one’ state of mind is universal .
This relationship is not is not limited to humans a number of animals consume different psychoactive plants, animals , berries and even fermented fruit , becoming catnip.
South Africa study found an alcohol use prevalence rate of 39.6% and a cigarette use prevalence rate of 10.6% among higher institution students . Others drugs that are commonly used in these setting include Cannabis , Inhalant ,Tramadol ,Heroin and cocaine among others.
The upsurge in the use of psychoactive substance seems to be a global problem. The prevalence also seems higher in developing countries as events happening in Nigeria indicates that the use of psychoactive substance is on the increase . For instance, cases of violent demonstration , thuggery , arson , incessant armed robbery , high level of prostitution , religious crisis and cultism among the restless youth in Nigeria could be linked to the unabated use of psychoactive substances.
Similarly, the rate of at which higher institution access to psychoactive substance for social reasons rather than prescription for medical purposes is high.
Knots[ 2002 ] reported that youths [ students] have used substance ranging from Tobacco , Marijuana , valium and inhalants to other hard drugs which often they obtained from friends , patent medicines stores, open market and mobile drugs seller with little or no difficulty
1.2 Purpose of the study
The purpose of the project is to investigate the rate of consumption and adverse effect of psychoactive drugs on students in higher institution in Ekiti State.
1.3 Statement of Problem
Nigeria has a country has experienced rapid growth of population in recent years. The increasing demand for education has led to more university being formed. Drugs has become common among students in campuses and even affecting their academic performance in class .despite the world wide concern and education about the danger and adverse effect of psychoactive drugs.
Many students has been rusticated out of school and others opted to engage in criminal activities thus endangering the lives of the people living in the country.
More so, illicit drugs use is injurious to both individuals and the society, spawning crimes , spreading diseases like AIDS, killing our youths and future leaders. Today, there are estimated 90 million drugs users around the world and no country alone can stem the drugs trade within its borders. No country is immune and no person really is [Awake, July 8, 2001] .some students are involved in the use of illicit drugs because they want to reduce regular pressure around them. It symbolizes a protest against set rules and to explore basic to self [Omega 2005].National drug law enforcement agency NDLEA and the news reports revealed that illicit drugs are used on the increase.
1.4 Significant of the study
The significant of the study will be useful in the higher institution, rural or urban areas .The study will reveal the rate of consumption and influence of major drugs on student’s academic performance
This study will also reveal the adverse effect of psychoactive drugs on students and also the way of relating among themselves .the proposed programs would be useful in educating all youth and adults in Ekiti State and all over Nigeria on the risks of drugs consumption
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study was based on higher institution students on rate of consumption and adverse effect of psychoactive drugs
1.6 Aims and objective
- To assess some types of psychoactive drugs commonly consumed by students of higher institution in Ekiti State.
- to assess the rate of consumption of some psychoactive substance among students from university, poly technique and college of education.
- To investigate the influence of gender on the rate of consumption of psychoactive drugs among students of higher institution in Ekiti State.
- To investigate the prevalence of the use of psychoactive drugs among students of higher institution in Ekiti State.
- To investigate the adverse effect of taking psychoactive drugs on students of tertiary institution in Ekiti State.
- To evaluate students reason for taking psychoactive drugs
1.7 Research Questions
- Adverse effect of psychoactive drugs on students cognitive , social and physical performance
- Rate of drug abuse among students in higher institution in Nigeria and other countries.
- Types of psychoactive drugs that are present in Energy drinks [ Caffeine ].
- prevention and treatment of addiction to psychoactive drug.
- Theoretical studies done on psychoactive drugs
1.8 Definition of Terms
- PSYCHOACTIVE: means affecting the mind or behaviour
- PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS: are substance that can alter the consciousness, mood, thought of those who use them.
- DRUGS: These are substance which may modify one or more of body functions. Drugs is a chemical other than those required for the maintenance of normal health which on administration alters biological functions.
- ILLICIT: Drugs that are not allowed by law , unlawful or illegal e.g cocaine , heroin.
- EFFECT: A Change that results when something is done or happens: an event , condition or state of affairs that is produced by a cause or consequence.
- PREVENTION: These include activities designed to provide permanent protection from a problem.
- BING DRINKING: Drinking lots alcohol in a short space of time
- LICIT DRUGS: Conforming to requirements of the law: not forbidden by law.