THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the role of Non-Governmental Organizations in the development of education in Nigeria. This study was a survey research type which comprises of selected schools and Non-Governmental Organization in Ado Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Questionnaire was used as a research instrument for data collection and analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics. The result shows that NGOs are involved in the development of education because they believe that Government alone cannot provide for all educational needs and expenses. The NGOs involves in education because of their believe that education is a tool for National development. The study further revealed the roles, activities and contributions of NGOs to the development are important for the upliftment of education sectors. The NGOs provides infrastructural facilities, instructional materials catering for student and staff welfare, enhancing self-reliance education, provision of scholarship and textbooks among others. It was therefore recommended that government should strive hard to encourage the NGOs to be actively involved in the development of education in Nigeria. Also, Non-Governmental Organization should not relent in the activities and contributions in order to reduce illiteracy and improve economic status of Nigerians.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Page

Title Page…………………………………………………          i

Certification………………………………………………          ii

Dedication…………………………………………………                   iii

Acknowledgement………………………..………………          iv

Abstract……………………………………………………                   vi

Table of content…………………………………………..                   vii

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

Background of the study…………………………………                   1

Statement of the Problem……….……………………….                    5

Objective of the Study…………………………………….                  6

Research Questions …………………………………….            7

Research Hypotheses……………………………………           7

Research Methodology………………………………….           7

Significance of the Study………………………………..           8

Justification of the Study ………………………………..           9

Scope of the Study………..……………………………..           10

Limitation of Study ……………………………………..           10

Definition of Terms …………………………………….            11

CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review and Theoretical Framework

Conceptual Clarification ………………………………..           14

Activities of Non-Governmental Organization in the                                   Development of Education in Nigeria ………………………  17

Constraints to Active Involvement of Non-Government                             Organisation in the Development of Education in Nigeria ……      20

Theoretical Framework ………………………………….                   22

CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology

Research Design…………………………………………           30

Population of the Study ……………………………………                30

Sample and Sampling Technique .………………………..                  31

Instrument for Data Collection …………….……………                   31

Source of Data Collection …….…………………………                   32

Validation of the Instrument…….…………………………                33

Administration of the Instrument .………………………                   34

Data Analysis Technique …….…………………………           35

CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion

Results ……………..…………………………………               37

Discussion of Findings……………………………………                  42

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary …………………………………………….                45

Conclusion ….………..…………………………..…..               46

Recommendation ……………………………………..              46

Suggestion for Further Study ………………………..               47

BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………               48

APPENDIXES………………………………………        …               52

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

It is crystal clear in Nigeria today, that education is the greatest instrument and asset which could be utilized for solving the various socio economic problems facing the nation and for fullest realization of the potentials and aspirations of the people. The government now perceives education as an investment in human capital, with the sole aim of wiping out ills such as ignorance, disease, malnutrition, corruption, bribery, tribalism, nepotism, super corruption, belief, unemployment, poverty, inequality, duld mortality, political instability and economic stagnation that usually plague an illiterate society.

Despite the commitment of the government to invest more on education in Nigeria, ironically, the cost of education in recent times in Nigeria has become astronomical. The high cost of education can be attributed to a number of factors which includes increase in teacher’s salaries and allowances to meet the hyper-inflation condition in the economy, increase in enrolment of potentials at all level of education (primary, secondary, and tertiary) in Nigeria due to high social demand for education which has consequently resulted in proliferation of educational institution and equalization of educational opportunities through the well-orchestrated Universal Basic Education Scheme [UBES]. Nomadic Education, Adult Literacy Programme, Distance Learning Education Part-time Programme, Pre-Degree, Pre-National Diploma (ND), Pre-NCE Nigeria Certificate in Education, Sandwish programmes and the “free education policy” of some state governments.

Adeniran (2000), expressing his view on the rapid expansion of the educational system, remarked that; in Nigeria, the educational system is expanding daily of astonishing rate, to the extent that within short periods educational forecast are render useless”. It is therefore not superfluous that the phenomenal growth of educational system has inevitably led to annual increase in expenditure on education in Nigeria today. The government spending has therefore increase due to increasing enrolment of students in school. Government need to attend to other area of the economy like health, security, foreign relation and diplomacy. Another urgly development about Nigerian government was the inability of the government to meet 26 percent of the United Nations Scientific Education and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) minimum as requirement as part of the National budget of every financial year to be dedicated for the funding of Education.

It is this becoming apparent that the government alone cannot continue to bear the burden of funding education, particularly in this period of economic socio political vicissitudes. Other sources have to be explored to supplement and complement the government sources. One of the sources is the involvement of the Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs) in the development of education in Nigeria.

The non-governmental organizations have played a significant role in educational development in Nigeria. The non-governmental organization includes the Religious Welfare and Philanthropist Association and Organization as well as the Commercial and Industrial Firms, which includes the Multi- national and Bi-lateral organizations and other Private Companies and Parastatals. The following prominent NGOs have been known to contribute greatly to the development of education in Nigeria. This includes UNICEF- United Nation Children Education Fund, UNESCO- United National Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation, USAID- United State Agency for International Development, WHO- World Health Organization and other national and Local non-governmental Organizations, operating in different ways and names.

The funding of NGOs may be by governments, foundations, businesses, or private organizations or individuals persons. Some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world specifically in Nigeria. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for educational, political, religious or other interest.

Non-Government Organisation (NGO) are difficult to define and the term NGOs is rarely used consistently. As a result, there are many different classifications in use. The most common focus is on ‘orientation’ and ‘level of operation’. An NGOs orientation refers to the type of activities it takes on. These activities might include human rights, environmental, or development work. An NGOs level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, regional, national or international.

The term “non-governmental organization” was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations (UN) was created. The UN itself an inter-governmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non- state agencies- i.e, non-governmental organizations to be awarded observer status as its assemblies and some of its meetings. Later the term became used and widely. Today, according to UN, any kind of private organization that is independent from government control can be termed   an “NGOs” provided it is not for profit, non- criminal and not simply an opposition Political Party.

One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention or a global ban on landmines. Public survey reveals that NGOs often enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful but not always sufficient-proxy for the concerns of the society and stakeholders.

The Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are exercising a very pervasive influence on the pace and directions of educational development in Nigeria.

According to Airewele (1999), development assistance from international NGOs can come in form of loans, research and other grants, purchase credits, goods and services. Over the years, the NGOs have been providing special aids to the educational sectors and offering opportunities for local and oversee training for educational planners and curriculum planners to make them abreast of least innovations in the field of education.

Statement of the Problem

The government expenditure over the years has increased due to some reasons ranging from population increase, natural disaster, disease outbreak and educational demand of the citizenry and many others. As the ways in which government channeled her resources into increases, the revenue that is accrued to the pursue of government decreases because of consistent fall in the price of crude oil in the international market. This is economic reality of our time. This clearly shows that all sectors of the economy would be affected including educational sector financing as result of the dwelling revenue that is accrued to the government at all level. With this development, it is clearly shows that government alone cannot fund education. It require the support of all the stakeholders including the Non-Governmental organizations. Despite the commitment of the government to invest more on education in Nigeria, the cost of education has become high that it is difficult for the poor to have access to education. Also, the growth and expansion in education system has inevitably led to annual increase in expenditure on education. It is therefore becoming apparent that the government alone cannot continues to bear the burden of funding education, particularly in this period of economic and socio-political vicissitudes. As a result of the above, the study therefore appraises the roles of Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the development of education in Nigeria.

Objective of the study

The purpose of this study is to find out the roles of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the development of education in Nigeria. A case study of selected secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State.

Specifically, the study will examine;

(i) The rationales for the involvement of Non-Governmental Organizations in the development of education in Nigeria.

(ii) The activities of Non-Governmental Organizations in the development of educations in Nigeria.

(iii) Non-Governmental Organizations and the type of contribution available to funding education in Nigeria.

Research Questions

The following research question were formulated for the study.

  1. What are the rationales for the involvement of non-governmental organizations in the development of education in Nigeria
  2. What are the activities of Non-Governmental Organizations in the development of education in Nigeria?
  • What are the constraints to the effective contributions of the Non-Governmental Organizations to the development of education in Nigeria?

Research Methodology

The study employs the descriptive statistics as a survey design. Both primary and secondary data will be used as a source of data for the study. A qualitative approach is used to highlight the specific phenomena and to identify phenomena through how they are perceived by the actors in the situation. The primary data involves the data that is collected from source through interview and questionnaire, while secondary data involves the information collected from the prepared sources such as newspaper, magazine and academic journals. The method of data analysis would be simple percentage analysis.

 

 

Significance of the study

The study will reveal the significant or role of Non-governmental organizations in the development of education in Nigeria. The study will help education researchers, school administrators, educational and curriculum planner to identify the activities of non-governmental organizations to the development of education in Nigeria. Considering the invaluable roles and contributions of education to meaningful individual, social and national development, nobody will dispute the fact that it is proper management and administration by competent leaders should be a national concern. The need and importance of the study to national development cannot be under looked as it appraised the role of NGOs in the management style and leadership role in administration, provision of instructional materials and infrastructure in the Nigerian schools. The study will be an eye-opener for the administrations, management schools, NGOs to know the appropriate method and techniques in formulating policies and programmes that will enhance education and national development, through the support of NGOs it’s important to state here that the study will be an opportunity to access the policies and programmes of government at putting the education sector in Nigeria in line with global practices.

Furthermore, the study will provide library services for readers. Every chapter of the study shall constitute an area of study for students and serve as resource material for teachers, especially in higher institutions of learning.

Justification of the Study

The need for the study is very important at this point in time, as the nation is experiencing several reforms, policy and programme in education sector aimed at putting the education in appropriate position. The study looks at the reflection and influence of management and administrative style of leaders by the NGOs in the management and development of education sector in Nigeria with a reference to selected schools in Ado local government area of Ekiti State. The selected schools will incorporate the elements of research and respondent that will be appropriate as the population for the study. In the same vein, the study will draw the attention of government and stakeholders in the country to the effectiveness of using fund allocated to them and policy, instruments for education recovery from both national and global practice.

Furthermore, the study will provide library service for leaders. Every chapter of the study shall constitute an area of study for students and serve as resource materials for teachers, especially in higher institutions of learning without mining words. The empirical results of previous research work on the management and administrative style the area in particular and provision of infrastructure by the NGOs in schools and the relationship in terms of development and budgetary components and output expansion in Nigeria education may no more be applicable to the recent challenges in the country. This study is sensitive to this fact. The study will therefore update the data set used by the previous researchers to produce a dependable result that is efficient management of primary, secondary schools and tertiary institution in Nigeria.

Scope of the Study

The study is designed to examine the role of NGOs in the development, management and administration of secondary schools in Nigeria. The investigation would be carried out in Ado – Ekiti local government area of Ekiti State. It will also look at management and administrative style of selected institutions.

Limitation of the Study

In view of the limitation of this study, various factors contributed in affecting the researcher’s comprehensive and totality in carrying out the study. Among these factors include, scarcity of relevant materials on the issue due to its continuous evolving nature, financial constraints, some questionnaire administered were not returned and most of the respondents failed to respond to some important questions even some response by the respondent were friend influence ‘copied work’ and other tasking campus engagements and the fact that the crises was still occurring at the period of research. Despite the above mentioned shortcomings and hindrances, the research study no doubt turned out to be successful.

 

 

Definition of Terms

EDUCATION: Education as an activity is as old as man across cultures. It is therefore a concept that people have severally defined according to their own perceptions. According to Emenike (2004), education is the acquisition of knowledge that tends to train and develop individual. Education embraces not only school experiences but also in direct or incidental influences which helps us to learn, such influences and activities affect our character, behaviors and perceptions. Education is a process of learning to live as useful and acceptable members of society. As a social institution, Emile (1956:28), defined education as: The influence exercised by adult generation on those that are yet ready for social life. Its object is to arouse and to develop in the child a certain number of physical, intellectual and moral states which are demanded of him by both the political society as a whole and the special milieu for which is specifically destined.

The matter arising from this definition are two fold. The first is that education is the process by which individuals are selected and assigned social roles while the second shows that the level of development in a society is dependent on the type (or quality) of education given to its members. All in all, education is a continuous learning process through which members of a society acquire requisite knowledge and skills to facilitate effective performance of assigned social responsibilities.

DEVELOPMENT: National, according to Longman dictionary of contemporary English refers to a phenomena that embraces a whole nation. National development therefore can be described as the overall development or a collective socio-economic political as well as religious advancement of a country or nation. This is best achieved through development planning, which can be described as the country’s collection of strategies mapped out by the government.

Development as a concept is a victim of definitional pluralism. It is a difficult word to define. However, attempts have been made by erudite scholars to conceptualize development. Some of those definitions will be explored for the purpose of this study.

Gboyega (2003) captures development as an idea that embodies all attempt to improve the conditions of human existence in all ramifications. It implies improvement in material well-being of all citizens, not the most powerful and rich alone. In a sustainable way such that today’s consumption does not imperil the future, it is demands that poverty and inequality of access to the good things of life be removed or drastically reduced. It seeks to improve personal security and livelihoods and expansion of life chances.

NGOs: This stands for Non-Governmental Organizations, it’s an organization that is neither a part of a government nor a conventional for profit business. Usually set up by ordinary citizens, NGOs maybe funded by governments, foundations, businesses, or private persons. Some avoid formal funding altogether and are run highly diverse groups of activities. The term NGO was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations (UN) was created being an Intergovernmental Organization.

Public survey reveals that NGOs often enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful but not always sufficient proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders.

References

Adaralegbe, A. A. (1972); A philosophy for Nigeria Education. Ibadan. Heineman Education Books Nigeria Limited.

Adaralegbe , A.A (2003): Secondary School Education in Nigeria, Progress, Problems and Issues in Nigeria Education Trends Issues, Ile-Ife ; OAU Press Limited.

Adaralegbe, A. A. (2004); Philosophy of Nigeria Education Ibadan. Heineman Education Books Nigeria Limited.

Adeniran, A. (2000); Manpower Utilization in Nigeria: An Analysis of Some Causes and Consequences of Unemployment FBN. Bi-Annual Review Lagos.

Airewele, S. (1999); Principle Practice and Fundamental of Education. London. Hodder and Stoughton.

Emenike, C. (2004): Institutional Bottlenecks to Curriculum Development in Nigeria. In Igwe (Eds). Journal of Education Research in Nigeria, Vol. 6. (12). pg 72-79.

Emile, D. (1956); Education for Social Mobilization and Development in Contemporary World. London: Princeton Hills Publisher

Farrant, A. (1964), Education Planning and Management for Reliance and Sustainability in Phenics (Ed) Journal of Education Planning in Developing Countries Volio (18) Pg 101-107.

Gboyega, B. (2003): The effects of Education on National Development in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges.

Oyekan, S.O (1999); Crisis in Nigeria Education System: Impact on human development in Gboye Ajayi (Ed) Critical Perspective on Nigeria’s socio – political Development in the 20th century Lagos. Setback Books.

Oyekan, S.O (1994); Fundamental of Education, in W.Osisanwo (Ed) Education for Nigeria Certificate in Education, Ondo, ACE Textbook Development Board.

HOW TO ORDER FOR COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL


PAYMENT OPTION 1.

» Bank Branch Deposits, ATM/online transfers (Amount: ₦3,000 NGN)

Bank: FIRST BANK
Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE
Account Number: 3116913871
Account Type: SAVINGS
Amount: ₦3,000
AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992

Bank: HERITAGE BANK
Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE
Account Number: 1909068248
Account Type: SAVINGS
Amount: ₦3,000
AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992

Subscribe via em

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


*