SERUM CALCIUM LEVEL IN GERIATRIC MEN, COMPERATIVE STUDIES

 

SERUM CALCIUM LEVEL IN GERIATRIC MEN, COMPARATIVE STUDIES

 

                         TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page ——————————————————————i

Certification —————————————————————ii

Dedication ——————————————————————iii

Acknowledgement ——————————————————–iv

List of table and Figures ————————————————v

Table of content ———————————————————–vi

Abstract —————————————————————vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0.0: Introduction ——————————————————- 1

1.1.0: The amount of calcium in the body —————————1

CHAPTER TWO

2.0.0: Literature review ————————————————–3

2.1.0: Reasons for serum calcium test ———————————

2.2.0: Techniques for serum calcium test —————————–

2.3.0: Factors that determines the serum calcium test ————-

2.4.0: Values of serum calcium fractions ——————————

2.5.0: Effects of abnormalities in serum calcium levels ————-

2.6.0: Biological functions of inorganic ions —————————

2.7.0: Clinical significance of serum calcium ————————–

2.7.1: Causes of hypocalcaemia ——————————————-

2.7.2: Causes of hypercalceamia ——————————————

2.8.0: Effector organs ——————————————————-

2.8.1: Sources ——————————————————————

2.8.2: Excretion —————————————————————-

2.8.3: The roles of bone ——————————————————-

2.8.4: Interaction of calcium with other chemicals ———————

2.8.5: Regulatory organs —————————————————–

CHAPTER THREE

3.0.0: Methodology/ Instruments ————————————

3.1.0: Instruments used ————————————————-

3.2.0: Collection of specimens ——————————————

3.3.0: Methodology ——————————————————–

3.3.1: Principle of the test ————————————————

3.3.2: Procedure used —————————————————–

3.3.3: Calculation of the results —————————————–

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0.0: Experimental result—————————————————-

4.1.0: Statistical analysis —————————————————–

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0.0:Discussion/ conclusion—————————————————–

5.1.0: Discussion ——————————————————————–

5.2.0: Conclusions ———————————————————————

5.3.0: References ————————————————————————

5.4.0: Recommendation —————————————————————

 

                                    

                                                   ABSTRACT

Calcium is the most important mineral in the body. The body needs calcium for normal functioning of nerves and muscles including the most important muscles of all which is the heart. Calcium is also important for healthy bones and teeth. The amount of calcium in the blood is carefully controlled by the body’s hormonal systems. The body gets calcium from diary products, some vegetables (such as broccoli), and some fortified foods. Calcium can also be obtained from taken pills containing calcium. Most of the body’s calcium is stored in the bones and only small amount is found in the blood (serum). Calcium is maintained within a fairly narrow range from 8.5 to 10.5mg/dl (4.3 to 5.3meq/l or 2.2 to 2.7mmol/l). The estimation of serum calcium level is fraught with possible errors. Several means of contamination might lead to false elevations of serum calcium concentration. Before the test is carried out, one does not need to fast or limit ones activity before the test. Rather certain medicine/drugs needed to be avoided before the test, because they might affect the test result. The result of the experiment can be calculated, since the differences in serum calcium is significance with the age differences. Those with the age bracket (50 years & above) have lesser serum calcium level than those in the range of 20 to 30 years.    

 

 

                                       CHAPTER ONE         

1.1.0:                           INTRODUCTION

               Serum Calcium level in Geriatric men

Calcium is the most common mineral in the body and one of the most important elements. The body needs it to build and fix bones and teeth, help nerves work, make muscles squeeze together, help blood clot, and help the heart to work. Almost all of the calcium in the body is stored in the bone. The rest is found in the blood.

Normally the level of calcium in the blood is carefully controlled. When blood calcium levels get low (hypocalcemia), the bones release calcium to bring it back to a normal blood level. When blood calcium levels get high (hypercalcemia), the extra calcium is stored in the bones or passed out of the body in urine and stool.

The of serum calcium level appears to be associated with blood pressure and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.  

 

1.2.0:   The amount of calcium in the body depends on the amount of:

Vitamin D: these hormones help control the amount of calcium in the body. They also control the amount of calcium absorbed from food and the amount passed from the body in urine and stool. The blood levels of phosphate are closely linked to calcium levels and they work in opposite ways: As blood calcium levels get high, phosphate levels get low, and the opposite is also true.

The aim and objective of this study is to:

  • Determine the serum calcium levels in geriatric men aged 50 years and above.
  • Compare the values obtained with age group 20 to 30 years.

                                           

 

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