THE STATUS OF PRACTICAL AGRICULTURAL IN SELECTED SCIENCES SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKITI STATE
The study focused on assessing the status of practical agricultural in selected sciences secondary schools in Ekiti State. Questionnaires were administered to students and teachers of agriculture science in sampled sciences secondary schools and collected by hand. The sample of the study consisted of sixty-four respondents. Sixty student and four teachers. The data collected was analyzed percentage means and frequency. The method of teaching agriculture in secondary schools include role playing, project method and problem solving facilities needed for teaching practical agriculture include school farm, farmland, poultry farm, labouratory practical activities needed by the student include activities in general agriculture identification of farm tools and their uses. The length of time need for practical range from an hour to two hours. The personnel to be involved in teaching practical agriculture are N.C.E Holder, and B.Sc Holder. The following recommendation are made for the finding of this study. Government should provide financial support to the school so that they can purchase modern tools and equipment and other farm tools needed for effective agriculture production. Activities in soil and animal science should be for student by teachers of agriculture. School farm should be used for teaching agriculture skill during practical rather than for punishing student. Student should be given shares from the farm produce for encouragement. School should organized agricultural week where agricultural produce from the farm would be exhibited and probably sold to the public for financial purpose.
Background of the Study
Agricultural science is the branch of science which deals with growing of crops and rearing of domestic animals for the benefit of man and raw materials for the industries (Ndem, 2013). He further explained that agricultural science deals with the production of crops and rearing of farm animals by man for the purpose of providing food, raw materials and shelter. It also involves the science of processing, preservation, storage, marketing and distribution of the agricultural products. Ngoddy (2000) explained that agricultural science is the foundation of all sciences as far as sustenance of live is concerned. Agricultural science provides food, raw materials, shelter, rural development, employment, foreign exchange to the nation and income to the farmers and his family (Anyanwu, 1982, Akinsanmi 1988). They further explained that agricultural science involves cultivation of land to produce plants and keeping animals for direct value to man. They added that agricultural science involves, marketing, and distribution of agricultural commodities
Practical in Agriculture centre much on food production. Practical Agriculture carried out either on the field/farm or in laboratories all gear toward food production for man, feed for livestock and raw materials for industries
Agriculture being one of the oldest industries has its origin traced to the earlier human societies who depended on the collection of wild fruits, roots and cutting grass for bush meat for food. As time went on domestication of crop become the order of the day which is the beginning of modern agriculture.
Agriculture occupies a strategies position in the social economics and political development of any nation. A nation that cannot feed its citizen is not only weak but has no basis for continued existence.
It is the responsibility of the school to train the youth with various skills involved in profitable farming for them to become future literate farmers who will be able to understand and adopt new innovation in farming. Inspite of all the effort of government to train literate farmers the problem of food scarcity in Nigeria lingers on the literate farmers do not want to engage in farming.
The external debt owned to other countries by Nigeria accumulated mostly become of food important and if those debts are to be paid, Nigerian must improve on practical agriculture. However Nigeria is primarily an agriculturally endowed country, but the most challenging task in Nigeria today is to increase food production so as to meet the ever-increasing food demand. Several farming programmes were carried out in Nigeria. However the Ondo and Ekiti State Programme / Agricultural Development project Niger Agriculture project, the North-West group farming scheme and other have all been reported as possessing a poor level of effectiveness.
Ogunrinde (1983) ask about the where about of graduate of agricultural programmes run by the different institution. He wondered why a significant proportion of the graduate do not go into agriculture production.
A critical look at the way teaching and learning of agricultural science is being handle in secondary schools, reveals that the teaching of the subject is not handled in such ways to encourage the student to take it up as a vocation. Farm practical, is an aspect of great importance in the learning of agricultural science and yet this aspect has not been adequately addressed in the school curriculum required practical skill are not the target of student. This is clearly evident in the poor attitude of student taking up farming as a means of livelihood coupled with their poor understanding of fundamental concept in practical agriculture. It is also one of the major causes of student under achievement in agricultural science.
The introduction of agricultural science into Nigerian schools was a step toward meeting food needs of the people.
The essence of the introduction of agricultural science into secondary school is to equip the student with the right attitude, methods and techniques of modern agriculture so as to increase agriculture productivity and provide raw materials for agro-owed industries.
Statement of the Problem
It has been observed that, despite the fact that there are qualified teacher of Agriculture science many students still run away from Agricultural science and they do not have interest in the subject possibly because of the practical works involved. Agricultural science is a vocational subject. It can not be taught in abstract. The reason why some students do not have interest in Agricultural science may be due to the method the teacher used to teach students ,the way he or she handled the subject.
The general low performance of student in agricultural science in the school certificate examination in the state is of great concern to all educational. The science secondary schools in Ekiti State, however were established to produce science student thoroughly groomed in both theory and practical, it is therefore important to assess the status practical activities to which these science students are exposed and determine the adequacy.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to asses the status of practical agriculture practice in science secondary school in Ekiti State.
To achieve this aim the following specific object are set out:
- Identify methods used in teaching practical agriculture in secondary schools.
- Determine facilities needed for teaching learning practical activities in secondary schools.
- Determines practical activities needed by the student
- Determine length of time needed for practical
- Identify personnel to be involved in teaching practical etc.
Significance of the Study
In order to understand the principle and application of the knowledge gained in science subject, practical experience is very achieve the desired learning resect.
This study is very important in the sense that it provides way of assessing practical agriculture in schools, it also help to determines number and quality of equipment and tools available for the student to use in practical agriculture. It help to investigate the attitude of the student toward practical agriculture and also reveals the role of school head and government in assessing practical agriculture in science secondary schools as well as create their areas for future interest researchers in the field.
The research question for this study are as follows:
- What are the method used in teaching practical agriculture in secondary schools?
- What are the facilities needed for teaching learning practical agriculture in secondary schools?
- What are the practical activities needed by the students?
- What are the length of time needed for practical?
- Who are the personnel to be involved in teaching practical etc?
Delimitation of the Study
This study focuses on the assessing the status of practical agriculture practices in science secondary schools.
The researcher try to look at various method of teaching practical agriculture and also problem militating against the extent of practical agriculture in science secondary schools.
Limitation of the Study
The study was limited to three schools due to having of three science secondary schools in Ekiti State.
The questionnaire was administered by hand there by consuming much time to complete the collection of data.
Assumption of the Study
- It is assumed the population selected is a representative of the general population
- It is also assumed that the questionnaire items are understandable by the respondents
- It is assumed that majority of the teacher administered questionnaire are matured to give accurate response to the questionnaire
- It is assumed that the result of the finding could be generalized to other science secondary schools not caused by this study.
Definition of Terms
- Agriculture Science:- Is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social science that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture.
- Agriculture:- Is the cultivation of animals plant, fungi and other life form for food, fiber drug and others product used to sustain and enhance human life.
- Farm Practical:– Agricultural practical concerning the raising or growing of plant and animals
- Equipment:- These include movable apparatus such as machines, book, handbooks, mode charts which aid learning but not consumable
- Assessing:– Decide the amount or value of estimate the worth or likehood.
- Facilities:- These are fixed, non-movable apparatus such as farm lands, livestock house laboratories, that are necessary for enhancing the teacher learning process
- Field Trip:– A planned visit to place outside the regular classroom to obtain information directly and study real situation .
- Vocation Skill:- Skill required as a result of undergoing a vocational training
- Supervised Practice:- This involves groups of pupils under the supervision of the teacher learning to improve individual proficiency on skills or to solve a problem or extend their knowledge of subject.