SUBJECT PREFERENCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IMPLICATION OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
Te study was implemented in two phases. It begans with the measurement of science concept/topic preference of pupils and teachers in three school for nomadic fishing communities in Ise-Orun Local Government Area of Ekiti State of Nigeria. Two schools for street children and two in the mainstream in Ekiti State metropolis were also studied. The aim of this phase of the study was to obtain data on primary science concept that the children enjoyed or disliked learning and using in everyday life, and reasons for such preference. In turn, data on teacher’s perception of children preferences of the topics was also sought for the purpose of comparison with those of the pupils. The overall idea was to describe inter-group profiles of preference of the nomads, street children and the mainstreams and subsequently, make inter-group comparison. Thirty children and two teachers’ were randomly selected for study from primary 4 and 5 in each school.
The second phase was participant observation of science classroom in the three groups of schools, within this phase, target children in each group were selected for in depth study using qualitative techniques. The goals of phase two was to identify underlying current of cultural variables at work in influencing science concept preference. The overreaching assumption was that data sets generated from the two phase of the study would provide a firm basis fro drawing tentative conclusion on how some of the cultural attributes of nomadic and street chidren influence their preference for and use of science concept. It is from this position that the implication for science teaching could be meaningful drawn
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Content
1.1 Aims of Science and Technology in Policy
of Education in Nigeria
1.2 History of Science
1.3 Objective of Science Teaching
1.4 Statement of the Problem
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
1.7 Limitation of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
2.0 Review of Literature
2.2 Definition of Science
2.3 Teaching of Science
2.4 Factors Affecting Science Teaching
2.5 Study of Science Concept Preferences
3.0 Method and Procedure
3.1 Research Design
3.3 Validity of the Instrument
3.4 Reliability of the Instrument
3.5 The Instrument
3.6 Data Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
4.1 Background Knowledge of Teachers
5.0 Implication of Teachers Preferences among
the School Subject
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1.1 AIMS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN POLICY OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
In development of Nigerian Science core-curriculum the panel (ie Science curriculum panel) made reference to the relevant portion of the national policy of education as it concern science education in Nigeria. According to this policy primary education should aim at:
- Preparing the individual for useful living the society.
- Preparing the individual for a secondary education more specially
- It should provide and increasing number of primary school pupils with the opportunity for education of a high quality. Irrespective of sex or social irreligious and ethic background.
- Diversity its curriculum to cater for the different in talent opportunities and roles possessed by or open to students after their primary school.
- Equip students to live effectively our mother age of Science and Technology.
- To race a generation of people who can think for themselves respect the view and feelings at others, respect the dignity of labour and appreciate those value specified under our broad Nation aims and live a good citizen.
- Inspire students with desire for achievement and self improvement both at school and later life.
Reference was also made to that section of the policy of junior secondary school which state that:
- The government plans that secondary education shall be a six years course and shall be given in two stages. A junior secondary stage and senior secondary school stage being of three years duration respectively.
- The secondary school will be pre-vocational and academic. It will be free as soon as possible and teach all the basic subject which will enable pupils to acquire further knowledge and develop skills.
- Students who live school at the Junior high stage may then go to apprencitiship system or some other scheme for out of school national training.
Bearing the above guideline in mine the panel then adopted objective of science as outline NSP (Nigeria Science Project) teachers guide book, the objective are as follows:
- Observing carefully and thoroughly.
- Reporting carefully and thoroughly.
- Organizing information acquired.
- Generalizing on the basis of acquired information.
- Predicting as a generalization
- Designing experiment (including control where necessary) to check prediction.
- Using model to explain ephemeron where appropriate.
- Continue the process inquire where new data do not conform to prediction.
SCIENCE IN SCHOOL CURRICULUM
The effort of Phelps-stroke commission in pointing out the irrelevant and inadequacy of the school curriculum is commendation. Science is inform of nature study and was then introduced into the school curriculum in Nigeria. It has been noted by Omolewa (1976) and Abdullahi (1982) that many issues have militated against the early introduction of science to Nigeria School. This include:
- The believe that the Africa reversed in science and technology was suspect.
- That Africans were biologically interview and uncapable of understanding science.
- The complete absence of science text book in Nigeria schools.
- Lack of uniform curriculum and the difficult of mutual comprehension between teachers and pupils.
- Absence of teachers to take the science subject.
- The prohibited cost of providing laboratory and laboratory equipment.
- Lack of equipment caused a low level of attention.
In the middle of 1920s many schools supported by government aids were able to acquire some laboratory equipment for the teaching of science. Notable among such schools that blazed the trail of science teaching was kings college. Lagos, which had been noted by Abdulabu (1982) as first school in Nigeria on set up a Chemistry laboratory.
ii The lack of teachers to teach science, however was overcome because in 1976, many teacher training college started offering science as part of their curriculum. These teacher were to champion the course of science teaching in the primary schools. Many factors have contributed towards improving the level of science teaching in Nigeria schools. Prominent among these was the setting up of the federal school of science which was to popularize science in Nigeria Abudulabi (1982). Also the war of curriculum reforms in the science education spreading from the west.
In the 1960s and through not only the level of science but also the method of science teachers.
iii Forming science club and making a field trip and exhibition science club can help to increase the student interests not only that the student can do some important work which is outside the curriculum.
1.2 HISTORY OF SCIENCE
As far back as (1878) science was introduced in Nigeria to post primary institution which provides course up to ordinary level. It was first taught as general science. It later broke into three core-science subject i.e. Biology, Chemistry and Physics. Though general science to be taught it was mainly reserved for pupils who did not intend to purse science beyond the ordinary level stage.
In the early 60s however a new way of thought about science in school emerge people began to discuss this new science called biology which was then being introduced in most educational institutions.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF SCIENCE TEACHING
The teaching of science to pupils is to enable them:
- To acquire basic scientific knowledge and scientific literacy
- To develop the scientific approach to problem solving.
- To discover the order and complexity in nature.
- To develop scientific attitudes.
- To seek meaningful explanation to natural phenomenon as a means of do in a way with superstition beliefs
- To apply science to everyday life to guarantee successful living.
- To develop interest in science and prepare them for science based professions.
- To obtain vocational skills from the study of science.
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The statement of the problem will be identify teacher’s preferences of subject in primary school curriculum.
In primary school some teachers like to teach Mathematics some do not. Primary school teacher teach English subject and it is compulsory for the teacher to teach all the subject whether they like it or not. Therefore a subject not know by the teacher will not be affectively taught by the teacher for instance, Mathematic being a compulsory subject the pupils must be taught very well. A teacher who is not good in the subject will not pass a correct information to the pupils.
Some teachers like certain subjects and they prefer to teach them to the pupils but in case where there is not materials or any teaching aids to carry the information to the pupils the subject preferred by that teacher will not be taught well.
Time factor: A teacher who is able to communicate the subject he or she prefer very well but to insufficient time, the subject may not be taught as he or she wisher.
The statement of the problem is therefore to identify preference given to science primary school teaching specifically the study identify.
- The qualification of the teachers.
- The position of science on the teacher preference table.
- Problem affecting the preference to the teachers.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is to analyze the subject preference of primary school teachers. And working on the assumption that if other factor are kept content a teacher who prefers to teach science and science related courses will have got positive interest in science and technology.
1.6 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The focus of the study is to investigate the subject preferences of primary school teacher and its implication of science and technology education in Nigeria.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study cannot cover all the school in Ise-Orun Local Government Area in Ekiti owning to constraint like:
- Limited time available.
- Limited financial resources to cover more than the sample area.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
SCIENCE: Is an organized body of knowledge about the universe, the aspect that touches our immediate existence:
TECHNOLOGY: Is a medium through which the simple and complex theories of science are made available for human consumption by means of mechanical contraption and machines.
CURRICULUM: These are specific area in education which focuses attention on the major task of what to teach and how to teach it.
VOCATION: Is a strong desire or feeling of fitness for a certain career, a trade or profession.
POST PRIMARY: The formal education received after primary education.
PREFERENCE: This is the act of preferring something favour to one person over others, A prior right.