A SURVEY OF THE USE OF IMPROVED MATERIALS FOR TEACHING MODERN SCIENCE CONCEPT A CASE STUDY OF AKURE SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE
Science is coined from greek and latin word scientics “means to know” or knowledge”.
This concept as however being described in so many ways by various authors that owe is left no clear cut defining the term for instant.
To a layman “science is anything that made life more comfortable for him or her organized body of knowledge in the form of theory, concept law, fact etc.
Science is knowledge ascertained by observation and experiment critically tested, systematized and brought under general principle.
It is a product which is knowledge organized along various scientific facts, concepts, theories and laws.
Bajah (1977) defined science as “an attempt by human being to organize their experiences about nature into meaningful system of explanation”.
Ogunniyi (1982) also defined science in his own view as “an interconnected series of concept and conceptual schemes that have developed as a result of experimentation and observation, it may also defined as an area of learning that deal with all of the physicochemical aspect of life.
Science is a concept that need to be practice, it a subject that deals with learning by doing. Mohammed (1995) as a science educator, learning experience should be kept active and this should be done through practical work. Learner of science are expected to work with equipment materials, reagent and specimen which enough can encourage the students to involve in many activities in science. These materials otherwise known as apparatus which the student used for the purpose of study and data collection.
Over the year, classrooms in our teacher education system have been characterized by the “chalktalk” syndrome where teachers engage in long narratias and write lengthing notes owe thw chalkboard.
According to Ukege (1996.62) the mode of content delivery is sometimes more in theory than practice as dictation, coping of notes and sale of hand – outs are often observed as the “operational strategies” a problem aborserved by poor equipment/facilities.
This has given rise to boring lessons delivered in colourless and drab presentations. Today in most of our teacher training colleges and colleges of education, students merely sit through lectures as a matter of study. Some of them exhibit bureden in various ways while others simply stay away from classes.
Decrying this intortunate situation, Tella O,ctal (1990) lawent for quite a number of years, Nigerian students have been expoted to the traditional techniques of teaching which are teachers centred. Apart from the fact that the method limits the scope of the knowledge of students it also encourages role learning and it is word of developing initatives in pupils or students commenting on this situation Essier (1975) posits that the teachers education curriculum is either two restrictive or not purposeful enough to awaken the inner resources of our youths. According to him, the curriculum is “little more than a mechanical device for mass production” writing further, he states emphatically that training should be anchored on wholesome rhythms such as stage drama and poetry rather than on mutters that affect only the memory and not the mind (emphasis morely).
In the same vain Ukeje (1996) a gives that any teaching which leads to rote learning is as unacceptable as indoctrination. According to him if education in the door that leads to modernization, it is the teacher that holds the key that unlocks that door”. Such a teacher must therefore poises masterly of the skills he intends to impart. The training of the teacher is consequently very important because no man can give what he does not have. Teacher training must therefore be practical oriented rather than (engaging ni) long story telling sessions enchored on rote learning.
A major purpose ofteacher education according to the national policy on education (1993) is to provide teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and to make them adaptable to any charging situation not only in the life of their country but in the wider world.
However, for good learning of science to take place certain aids has to be introduced, which would impact knowledge to the learners of science. In other works science are through with the use of aids which can be improvised materials transmit information as the real materials does, the effect doing this to wipe away the abstract belief of learning in science.
According to Aegean, Oke Bukola, and Fetunwase (1981) improvisation is “art of substitution for the real thing”.
According to Alonge (1983) views improvisation he said it is not just the production of important substitution for the “real thing” rather it is activity in promoting curiosity, creativity, alertness, endurances and perseverance all of which are indispensable to science and scientists, acquisition, retention in science education industries. It encourages the act of bringing together of learners in solving identifying and classifying science problems. Integrated science has been considered as one of the vital subject in the school syllabus be it primary or secondary institution its importants can be seen from its daily occurrence in the general time table which out numbers other subject just like English and Mathematics.
As a discipline of study, the teaching and learning of integrated science is a challenging and existing venture which merits special attention and skills on the part of both the teacher and the learner.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Integrated science is considered on important subject in the study of science.
This research work seeks to provide situation to the following problem.
- Does the use of improvisation wipe away the abstract beliefs of the student?.
- Does the use of improvised materials contributes to good learning and teaching of science?
- Is the use of improvised materials advantageous to the learners?
- Does the use of improvised materials that are not costly to be embarked upon?
- Do the teacher make use of improvised materials in their teaching always?
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main focus of this research is therefore to find out a survey on the effective use of improvised materials in our secondary schools. And how they go along in helping the teacher to teach and explain some modern scientific concept.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Due to the fact that the research have to be carried out in many school in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State and there is financial problem as time shortage the research work is limited to selects teacher of integrated science in Akure South Local Government.
The research intend to limit it scope of the following secondary schools.
- Alakunre Comprehensive High School, Akure
- Ijo Mimo Oluwa High School, Akure
- Saint Micheal Catholic High School, Akure
- Secret of Success Academy, Akure
- Seat of Wisdom Academy, Akure
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be of immense importance to the teachers and student, it will enable the teacher to know the relievance of integrated science as a subject to every day life.
Hence this study should be of interest not only to the educationalist but also to the science teacher and students who would like to use it for improving the lot of student of science.
The significance of this study to the government and ministry of education like in the area of amenities which are needed in all secondary schools that will promote the teaching and learning of integrated science in secondary school.
- LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study will be limited to only secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Education District because of limited time at work, financial constraints.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research study will provide answers to the following questions.
- Are there enough instructional materials in Nigeria schools?
- What are the factors militating against good performance of science teachers in our schools?
- Are those teaching science really qualified for the job?
- Are there any differences between male and female teachers in their performances in science?
- What motivational techniques are used to stimulate teacher interest in science.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Survey: This is a situation whereby we measure and map out the size, shape, position, and elevation e.t.c of an area of the earth’s surface.
- Improvised materials: Is anything that make teaching and learning more effective, and anything that will rouse and motivate the interest of the learners
- Teaching: Teaching is an act of bringing about desirable changes in human learning and behaviours
- Science: Science is the every human activities or experience that we organized in a systematic way in order to understand his environment. Science also concerned finding out the truth about the nature.