Background to the Study

Achievement of the goals and objectives of any educational system largely depends on the job performance of the teachers who are to implement the programme. Teachers constitute a major factor which cannot be neglected in the advancement of any educational system. Education has been recognized as a sensitive issue and a factor for development. Nigeria cannot afford to toy with the education of her citizenry. This is because the wealth of a nation is a function of the available human resources as well as the abundance of natural resources. Teachers at all levels are responsible for the manpower production to service the economy. This calls for effectiveness in the part of the teachers especially at the secondary school level. It is important to note that if the secondary level of education is to be functional and productive, greater attention must be focused on the ways teachers perform their instructional duties.

Aminu (2007) aptly observed that teachers are indispensable within the teaching-learning process. Also, trained and effective teachers are the principal assets of any educational system, Teachers constitute not only a vital input to education but also a major drive in the production process and in the determination of the output system, Ogunrinde (2004) noted that the ultimate goal of the subject teacher in our secondary schools is to prepare and present his students to pass well both at internal and external examinations. He opines that “we have observed with dismay, the perfunctory and gradual deterioration of the attainment of this goal over the years”. Several problems militate against the realization of these goals. One of these may be attributed to the personality factors of our teachers in the public schools.

Adewumi (2000) affirmed that there are now incessant complaints and comments from people within and outside the state that standard of education are falling. It is the belief of the general public that the performance of students in public examination in Nigeria is nothing to write home about when compared with the past. This has been attributed to the way and manner teachers perform their job. The National Policy on Education (2004) reiterates that “no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers”. It is however doubtful if Nigeria teachers are optimally effective in the discharge of their duties.

Studies on various aspects of organizational functions have sought to establish the link between demographic factors as age, qualifications, experience and pattern of individual perception on one hand, and attitudinal disposition to task accomplishment on the other hand. Okolo (2011) for instance observed that age tended to affect head teachers’ administrative performance. This is because, the older headmasters tended generally to spend more years on the job, attended seminars and participated in relevant professional programmes. Ibukun (2013) however found that age had a negative correlation on leadership performance. Adewumi (2000) observed that as the age of teachers increase, there is tendency for teachers to have more favourable perception of the instructional supervision. Teachers age is positively related to teacher instructional improvement practice.

It is also believed that there is strong positive relationship between qualifications and teachers’ job performance. McGreal (1998) noted that a lot of the problems facing many schools stemmed from the fact that there are shortage of qualified teachers. Abubakar (1993) expressed that teachers qualification is very important in determining the level of education. He regretted that the falling standard of education may be attributed to a number of factors among which is the shortage of qualified teachers in the school system.

Teachers’ experience has been used as one of the determinant factor to academic  performance. Harbison and Hanushek (2012) found in a related study that teaching experience correlates positively with learning. Smith and Neale (2011) also observed that teachers’ current knowledge and experience may also influence how they exploit the curriculum potential of their subjects. Once teachers are deemed competent and experienced, decisions about their employment are based on the job.

Another factor that determine teachers’ job performance is motivation in enhancing  academic performance . Motivation could therefore be viewed as any force that would reduce tension, stress,  worries and frustration arising from a problematic situation in a person’s life. Where such incidence of tension, stress and worries are traceable to a work situation it might be referred to as negative organizational motivation. Teacher motivation could  therefore be referred to as those factors that operate within the school system which  if not made available to the teacher could hamper performance, cause stress, discontentment and frustration all of which would subsequently reduce classroom effectiveness and student quality output. This implies that teacher motivation includes factors that cause, channel, sustain and influence teachers’ behavior towards high management and academic achievement standards in schools.

According to Cole (2004), motivation is the term used to describe those processes both instinctive and rationale, by which people seek to satisfy the basic drives, perceived needs and personal goals, which trigger human behavior. Bateman and Snell (2007) also define motivation as the forces that energize, direct, and sustain a persons’ effort. All behavior, except involuntary reflexes like (eye blinks) which have little to do with management, is motivated. A high motivated person will work hard toward achieving performance goal. With adequate ability and understanding of the job, such a person will be highly productive and increase academic performance. According to sociologists, current school environments are a reward-scarce setting for professional work and often seem to work against teachers’ best efforts to grow professionally and improve student learning (Peterson 2015). Frase (2012), shows that many good teachers leave teaching in the first three years because they lack motivation. A motivated teacher is one who not only feels satisfied with his or her job, but also is empowered to strive for excellence and growth in instructional practice.

The work puts into focus the teachers’  determinants for better academic performance, such factors as qualification, motivation and experience as they relate to teachers’ job performance and academic performance. This research attempts to examine the teachers’ determinant for better academic performance in Ado Local Government of Ekiti State.

Statement of the Problem

Teacher motivation is a major determinant of job performance among teachers. This is because motivated and dedicated staff is considered as a cornerstone for the effectiveness of a school in facing the various challenges and problems posed to it without motivation there can’t be better academic performance.

The lack of motivation is perceived to be determined by different factors such as work environment, no adequate rewards for teachers  and problem of unpaid salary. It has been observed that Lack of motivation among teachers has been manifested in teacher unwillingness to participate in school activities, poor attendance, unexpected absence, late coming, lack of additional training, uncreative and non-stimulating teaching, lack of interest in meetings and unhelpful attitudes when assistance is needed. Performance of a given school depends more on the teacher‘s effort and if that a given teacher is unhappy with his/her job, he/she will not put emphasis into his/her teaching. Rodgers Jenkinson and Chapman (1990) found that over a sustained period of time, the loss of experienced teachers hurts the quality of instruction and drives up the costs of recruiting and training new teachers.

          The quality of education of a nation could be determined by the quality of her teachers. Another important factor in improving  academic performance is qualification of the teacher in all schools. Specifically, the measurement of teacher’s preparation and certification are correlated with their performance. An unqualified teacher will definitely fail in discharging his/her duties which affect academic performance. It is further reported that, teacher’s characteristics such as certification status and degree in area of specialization are very significant and positively correlated with students learning outcomes. It is on this backdrop the study examine the teachers determinant for better academic performance in Ekiti Ado Local Government of Ekiti State.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the f teachers’ determinant  for better academic performance in Ado Local Government of Ekiti State. Other specific purpose are to

  1. examine the relationship between teachers ‘motivation and academic performance in Ado Local Government of Ekiti State.
  2. Examine the relationship between teachers’ qualification and academic performance in Ado Local Government of Ekiti State.
  • examine the relationship between teachers’ experience and academic performance in Ado Local Government of Ekiti State.

Research Questions

The following questions were raised to direct the study.

  1. Is there any significant relationship between motivated teachers and Academic performance in Ado Local Government of Ekiti State, Nigeria?
  2. Is there any significant relationship between teachers’ qualification and Academic performance in Ado Local Government of Ekiti State, Nigeria?
  • Is there any significant relationship between teachers’ experience Academic performance in Ado Local Government of Ekiti State,?

Research Hypotheses

Based on the problems highlighted, the following hypotheses were formulated and tested in an attempt to answer the questions raised.

  1. There is no significant relationship between teachers’ motivation and Academic performance in Ado Local Government of Ekiti State.
  2. There is no significant relationship between teachers’  qualification  and Academic performance in Ado Local Government of Ekiti State.
  3. There is no significant difference between years of teachers’ year experience and Academic performance.

Significance of the Study

This research would be of benefit to the following; Ministry of Education, Education management    institute, principal, head teachers, class teachers and students. The study findings will

Provide recommendations on teachers’ incentives and motivation whereby teachers will be able to perform their responsibilities well and increase   academic performance.

Identify key areas and issues in the area of teachers’ motivation which need further follow up and by doing so, teachers’ motivation problems will be solved and they will be satisfied and perform their duty well.

Provide important information on how teachers’ qualification, experience and age determines teachers’ job performance and increase in academic performance.

The study will also contribute to existing literature as serve as a guide to student who may want to carry out research on related topic.

Delimitations of the Study

The research was delimited  to teachers’ motivation, qualification, and years of experience as teachers’ determinant for better academic performance. The study would be delimited to five secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State.

Definition of Terms

Academic performance: Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the outcome of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.

Motivation: Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal.

Resources refer to all those objects, people, buildings and environment that will enhance teachers’ performance.

Student: a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college; or any person who studies, investigates, or examines thoughtfully:

Teacher :A person who cares enough about abusive and ungrateful teens to work for crappy pay and long hours while hoping someday students mature enough to realize how lucky they are to have someone who gives a shit about them.

Teacher Qualification: Teaching qualification or teacher qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degree that enablces a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary school.

Teaching refers to provision of information and all activities designed to facilitate learning.




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