TEACHERS QUALIFICATION AND WORKING EXPERIENCE AS DETERMINANTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES
The purpose of this study was to investigate the teachers’ qualification and working experience as determinants of secondary school students’ academic performance in Social Studies. The study considered five variables which affects students’ academic performance in Social Studies. The variables are; teachers’ qualification and academic performance, teaching experience and students’ performance, teachers’ attitude and students’ performance and lastly, the use of instructional materials and students’ performance in Social Studies.
The study was descriptive in nature. The population of the study comprised of all the secondary school teachers in Ado-Ekiti Local Government in Ekiti State (1,252). The sample size of one-hundred and ninety teachers was used for the study. A questionnaire was used as a mean of data collection. The face and content validity of the instrument was established by the researcher’s supervisor and other experts in the department of tests and measurements who scrutinized the items on the questionnaire and their corrections were taken into consideration before they were finally administered on the sampled population. The reliability of the instrument was also done. The instrument was personally distributed by the researcher with the help of some friends. The instrument was collected for data analysis with the use of descriptive analysis which includes frequency counts and simple percentage. Also, inferential statistic (Pearson Product Moment Coefficient) was used to test the research hypotheses.
The outcome of the study showed that there is a significant relationship between teachers’ qualification and students’ performance in Social Studies. There is also a significant relationship between teachers’ experience and students’ performance in Social Studies. It was also revealed that there is a significant relationship between teachers’ method of teaching and students’ performance in Social Studies. Furthermore, there is a significant relationship between teachers’ attitude and students’ performance in Social Studies. And lastly, there is a significant relationship between the use of instructional materials and students’ performance in Social Studies.
It is on this note that the researcher finds it imperative to make some recommendations that if properly implemented will better the lot of Social Studies students and their performance in the subject and perhaps the educational standard of the country;
- The government should recruit more qualified teachers to teach the subject in our secondary schools.
- The government should try to carry out written and oral interview to test the competence of teachers from time to time.
- Teachers should be encouraged to attend seminar and conferences in order to improve their experience in the subject they are teaching.
- Government should give incentives and time to time promotion of their staff.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE I
TABLE OF CONTENTS VII
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 8
Purpose of the Study 8
Research Questions 9
Research Hypotheses 10
Significance of the Study 10
Delimitation of the Study 11
Definition of Terms 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Education 13
Who is a Teacher 22
Who is a Student 23
Conceptual Framework 24
Teachers’ Qualification and Students’ Academic Performance in
Secondary Schools 26
Teaching Experience and Students’ Academic Performance in
Secondary Schools 28
Student Academic Performance in Social Studies in Secondary School 31
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Research Design 35
Sample and Sampling Techniques 36
Research Instrument 36
Validity of the Instrument 37
Reliability of the Instrument 37
Administration of the Instrument 37
Data Analysis 38
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Test of Hypotheses 46
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
APPENDIX I 64
Background to the Study
The teacher is the pivot on which the educational process rests. In fact, the importance and place of teacher in the education process is highly priced by all nations of the world. Little wanders why the Federal Government of Nigeria clearly stated that no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers. Thus, teachers should be provided with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and make them adequate to changing situations (FRN, 2009). It is important that teachers’ voices are widely accepted as the driving force for educational improvement and development, particularly at this time when the education system faces so many challenges and conflicting pressures.
However, whatever the influences of the teacher would be on the system of education, it can only be determined by the teacher’s quality, teacher’s quantity and teacher’s value (Abodunrin and Ogundore, 1996). This scenario calls for teacher professionalism in order to enhance the role of teachers in the formulation and implementation of educational policies in Nigeria. Nigeria needs teachers who will meet the expectations of the nation; teachers who will help the nation raise a generation of citizens whose performance will meet the international standards; a generation that will be prosperous, vibrant and peaceful. This notion cannot achieve the expected quality education without competent teachers and school administrators who are well equipped with the desirable knowledge, skills and effective operations of the education system (Wokoha, 2014). The Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN, 2010), advocates that teaching just like other professions now requires that only those who are adequately prepared and regulated should be entrusted with the teaching- learning process.
The quality of education of a nation could be determined by the quality of her teachers. The most important factor in improving students’ achievement social studies is by employing seasoned qualified teachers in all schools (Abe and Adu, 2013). Okuruwa (1999) found that, policy investment on quality of teachers is related to improvement in students’ performance. Specifically, the measurement of teacher’s preparation and certification are correlated with students’ achievement in social studies and others social science subject. It is further reported that, teacher’s characteristics such as certification status and degree in area of specialization are very significant and positively correlated with students learning outcomes in social studies This report was in line with the findings of Salman (2009).
Abe and Adu (2013) and Wiki (2013) opined that, a teaching qualification or teacher qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degree that enables a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary school. Such qualifications include, but are not limited to, the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGDE). The Professional Diploma in Education (PDE), Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) and Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE). In Ekiti State, teachers who are academically qualified and those that are professionally qualified are engaged to carry out instructional process (Ahiazu and Prince Will, 2011).
Academically qualified teachers refer to those who have academic training as a result of enrolment into educational institution and obtained qualifications such as HND, B.Sc, B.A, and M.A. and so on; while professionally qualified teachers are those who got professional training that gave them professional knowledge, skills, techniques, attitudes as different from the general education (Edu and Kalu, 2012). They hold degrees like, B.Ed., B.Sc. Ed, B.A. Ed, and M.Ed and so on. On the other hand, there are studies that have found no significant relationship between teacher educational qualification and students’ academic achievement. For instance, Igwe (1990) investigated the influence of teacher’s qualification on academic performance of students in science subjects in Kano State. The researcher found no significant relationship between teacher’s qualification and students’ performance. While Adeniji (1999), Osokoya (1999) and Oladele (1999) found out that teacher’s qualification contributed minimally to the variance with students’ cognitive achievement and Bilesanmi (1999) and Okonwa (1999) found that teacher’s experience was highly significant on students’ academic achievement in Political Science .Coonery (1990) opined that students do not understand social studies when it is taught by an ineffective teacher. Izumi and Evess (2002) buttressed this by saying that teacher quality is the most important among other critical factors like quality curricula, funding, small class size and learning situation. George (2004) attributed poor achievement of students in social studies to teacher qualification, inadequacy of materials as well as administrative factors. In teaching social studies, Adesina (1982) and Fafunwa (1985) opined that with an exception of holders of minimum of B.Sc in Political Science , many other teachers would be confronted with problem of teaching College of Education social studies syllabus effectively. Hence, Lussa (1985) argued that no one gives what he/she does not possess. He further said that no matter how good a course curriculum is, if we do not have well trained, qualified and motivated teachers, we may not achieve the desired goals. In view of this, a teacher is someone who has been exposed to a good measure of training in a teaching subject area as well as in professional education:such professionally qualified teachers may according to the Federal Ministry of Education (2004) fall into a number of academic categories. Mkpa (1987) regarded the trained teacher as someone who underwent and completed his education in a formal teacher training institution or in a planned programme of training. Among such areas of training may include principles and practice of education as well as being exposed to an observed period of internship either after or as part of the period of training. People who fall within this category should under normal circumstances be able to fulfill the various functions expected of teachers within and outside the four walls of the classroom. Furrugia (1987) perceived a professional teacher as one who possesses professionally based knowledge in the theory and practice of education as well as find job satisfaction in the belief that he/she is making an important contribution to the social, cultural and economic development of his/her country. Such a teacher should equally, be able to understand students’ abilities to exploit educational benefits of the social context within which he/she lives. He/She should be able to assist Students to reach their full intellectual and social potentials. According to Adieze (1986) non qualified and non-professional teachers in teaching profession are killing the profession because they are not really teachers. He regarded them as “bird” of passage that create unnecessary vacuum whenever they see greener pasture and better prospect in the profession they are originally trained for. The comparison of students’ scores in social studies achievement test based on teachers’ qualifications becomes necessary in order to know if formal teaching methods has any significant effect/influence on students’ performance in social studies or not.
Poor academic performance is a performance that is adjudged by the examinee/testee and some others significant as falling below an expected standard. Poor academic performance has been observed in school subject’s especially Government and social studies among secondary school students.
Academic failure is not only frustrating to the students and parents, its effect are equally grave on the society in terms of dearth of man power. In all spheres of the economy and politics.
Education at secondary school level is supposed to be the bedrock and the foundation toward higher knowledge in tertiary institutions. It is an investment as well as an instrument that can be used to achieve a more rapid economic, social, and political, technology, scientific and cultural development in the country.
The national policy on education (2004) stipulated that secondary education is an instrument for national development that fosters the worth and development of the society and equality of educational opportunities to all Nigerian children, irrespective of any real marginal disabilities.
The role of secondary education is to lay the foundation for further education and if a good foundation is laid at this level, there are likely to be no problem at subsequent levels. However, different people at different times have passed the blame of poor performance in secondary school students because of their low retention parental factors, association with wrong peers, low achievement motivation and the likes (Aremu and Sokan, 2003; Aremu and Oluwole 2001; Aremu, 2000).
Falling level of academic achievement is attributable to teacher’s non-use of verbal reinforcement strategy, others found out that the attitude of some teachers to their job is reflected in their poor attendance to lessons, lateness, to school, unsavoury comments about students performance that could damage their ego, poor method of teaching and the likes affect pupil’s academic performance.
Statement of the Problem
Teaching and learning of social studies depends to a large extent on teacher’s knowledge of the contents and ability to adequately deliver the contents to the students. However a lot of variables may inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of the contents by the students, such variables may be lack of qualified teachers, teachers’ qualification, experience, inadequate use of instructional materials among others. While the present study sought to determine the impact of teacher qualifications and experience on students’ academic performance in Social Studies among selected secondary schools in Ado Local Government of Ekiti State.
Purpose of the Study
The major objective of this study is to investigate the impact of teacher qualification and working experience in secondary school students performance in Social Studies among selected secondary schools in Ado local government area.
Also the specific objective is to
- To determine teacher qualification on student academic performance
- To determine the perception of teacher on students for poor performance and teacher’s qualification?
- To determine the attitude of teacher towards teaching and learning of social studies
- To determine the effect of student’s poor academic performance and teacher’s method of teaching Social Studies
This research will attempt to answer the following questions.
- What are the impact of teaching experience on students academic performance in Social studies?
- Does instructional materials have impact on students academic performance in social studies?
- What effect does teachers attitude have on students academic performance?
- Does instructional material have impact on students academic performance in social studies?
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ qualification and student academic performance in social studies .
- There is nosignificant relationship between teachers’ experience and students’ academic performance in social studies
- There is no significantrelationship between teachers’ method of teaching and students’ academic performance in social studies.
- There is nosignificant relationship between teachers’ attitude and students’ academic performance in social studies
Significances of the Study
This study is considered significant in the sense that it will generate sufficient data useful to teachers and government that are concerned with the welfare of students. Also, it is hopeful that the study will provide data on impact of teachers qualification on the academic performances of the students in social studies
Also, it will help the curriculum planners to known if teacher qualification is the major factors of student poor academic performance in the sample school.
The outcome of this research will create data that will help in future research. The result of the study would assist the federal government and the ministry of Education on how to improve the conditions of the standard of living among undergraduate students in order to employ efforts to reduce stress in tertiary schools in Nigeria. This research work will enhance the student academic performance and serves as a guide to students who may want carryout research on a similar topic. The research will help parent to know the impact a qualified teacher has on their children.
Delimitation of the Study
This research focuses on the impact of teacher qualification and working experience on students’ academic performance in Social studies. The study covers ten randomly selected secondary schools in Ado Local Government area of Ekiti state. One hundred (190) teachers were used for the study.
Definition of Terms
Teacher :A person who cares enough about abusive and ungrateful teens to work for crappy pay and long hours while hoping someday students mature enough to realize how lucky they are to have someone who gives a shit about them.
Student: a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college; or any person who studies, investigates, or examines thoughtfully:
Academic performance: Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the outcome of education — the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.
Teacher Qualification: Teaching qualification or teacher qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degree that enables a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary school.
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