THE IMPACT OF E-LEARNING IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES
The study investigates the impact of E-learning in the teaching and learning of social studies. The study is a diagnostic study which is a analytical survey that attempt to describe an explain why certain situation exist systematic random sampling procedure where used, to select seventy five students for the study. Questionnaires were the main instrument of data collection for the study
From the survey the world has become Smaller as a result of the immerse program made in the field of information and communication technologies, it accessibility through the use of satellites, cable and other such device that have made man more independent and have increased our mobility by making distance shorter and communication faster, in the light of this governor should also address E-learning implementation process as the prime focus, computer skills, number of house individual spend studying and social demographic characteristic, critical factors such as institutional issues management issues pedagogical factors, technological issues, interface design issues, evaluation issues and resources support issue.
The need to carryout detain research involving various learning institutions which will ultimately give better understanding of impact of E-learning aspects within implementation process.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Objective of the Study
Significance of the Study
Definition of Term
The role of E-learning on Academic Performance of Social Study Student
The role of Prior Computer Stills on Performance in E-Learning set up
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Data collection procedures and instruments
Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Background of the Study
E-learning according to Markus (2008) can be defined learning process created by interaction with digitally delivered content, network based services, and tutoring support E-learning is any technological mediated learning using computers whether from a distance or in face to face classroom setting (Computer assisted learning) it is a shift from traditional collaborative learning based on a community of learners, teaches, facilitator, experts. E-learning is the use of internet technologies to enhance knowledge and performance. E-learning technologies offer learner control over content, learning sequence, pace of learning, time, and often media, allowing them to tailor their experiences to meet their personal learning objectives. To manage access of e-learning materials, consensus on technical standardization, and methods for peer review of these resources. E-learning presents numerous research opportunities for faculty, along with continuing challenges for documenting scholarship. Innovations in e-learning technologies point toward a revolution in education, allowing learning to be individualized (adaptive learning), enhancing learners’ interactions with others (collaborative learning, and transforming the role of the teacher.
The integration of e-learning into education can catalyze the shift toward applying adult learning theory, where educators will no longer serve mainly as the distributors of contents, but will become more involved as facilitators of learning and assessors of competency. E-learning refers to the use of internet technologies to deliver a board array of solutions that enhance knowledge and performance. E-learning can be used by medical educators to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of educational interventions in the face of the social, scientific, and pedagogical challenges noted above. It has gained popularity in the past decade; however, its use it highly variable among medical schools and appears to be more common in basic science courses than in clinical clerkships. E-learning is also called Web-based learning, online learning distributed learning, computer assisted instruction, or internet-based learning. Historically there have been two common e-learning modes: distance learning and computer assisted instruction. Distance learning uses information technologies to deliver. Instruction to learners who are at remote locations from a central site. Computer assisted instruction (also called computer-based learning and computer base training) uses computers to aid in the delivery of stand-alone multimedia packages for learning and teaching. Multimedia learning. Multimedia uses two or more media, such as text, graphics, animation, audio, or video, to produce engaging content that learners access via computer. Blended learning, a fairly new term in education but a concept familiar to most educators, is an approach that combines e-learning technology with traditional instructor-led training, where, for example, a lecture or demonstration is supplemented by an online tutorial. Faculty, administrators, and learners find learning. These advantages can be categorized as targeting either learning delivery or learning enhancement. Learning delivery is the most often cited advantage of e-learning and includes increased accessibility to information, ease in updating content, personalized instruction, ease of distribution, standardization of content, and accountability accessibility refers to the user’s ability of find what is needed, when it is needed. Improved access to educational materials is crucial, as learning is often an unplanned experience updating electronic content is easier than updating printed materials e-learning technologies allow educators to revise their content simply and quickly. Learners have control over the content, learning sequence, pace of learning, time, and often, media, which allows them to tailor their experience to meet personal learning objectives. Internet technologies permit the widespread distribution of digital content to many users simultaneously anytime and anywhere. An additional strength of e-learning is that it standardizes course content and delivery; unlike, for instance, a lecture given to separate sections of the same course. Interactive learning shifts the focus from a passive, teacher centered model to one that is active and learner’s centered, offering a stronger learning stimulus interactivity helps to maintain the teacher interest and provides a means for individual practice and reinforcement Evidence suggests that e-learning is more efficient because learners gain knowledge, skills, and attitudes faster than through traditional instructor-led methods. This efficiency is likely to translate into improved motivation and performance. E-learners have demonstrated increased retention rates and better utilization of content, resulting in better achievement of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Multimedia e-learning offer learners the flexibility to select from a large menu of media options to accommodate their diverse learning styles.
In the age of information and communication Technology (ICT), there is growing concern for the use of ICT resources such as the computer, scanner, printer, internet, e-mail, video phone system, teleconferencing device, wireless application protocols (WAP) radio and microwave, television and satellites, multimedia computer and multimedia projector in curriculum implementation. In E-learning curriculum content in the form of tests, visuals e.g pictures, poster, videos, audio sound, monitor, image, maps and graphic can be simultaneously present online to students in the classroom. E-learning (EL) is a unifying term used to describe the field of online learning, web-bass training and technology delivered instruction (Oye, Salleh and Lahead 2010). E-learning is also define as a learning process, created by the interaction with digitally delivered content network-based service and tutoring support Ezeasomba (2010). E-learning is any technologically medicated leaning using computer whether from a distance or in face to face classroom setting (computer Assisted Learning)
It is shift from traditional education or training to ICT based personalized, flexible, individual, self organized collaborative learning based on a community of learning teaching, facilitator and experts. In recent time, there has been intensive advocacy nationally and internationally for the application of EL in teaching and learning process. Abimbade (2010), observed that the application of EL in the school subject is to make learner learn better and teacher to teach well. It is not a hindrance to teachers student relationship. It is not a hindrance to teacher student relationship. It rather ensure transactional instructional communication where the teacher manage the human materials, time and place to make that instructional event (Game attention simulation) recall present stimulus thinking elicit performance provide feedback, provide generalizing experience performance occur leading to hanged in behavior of people. It has been noted that EL is an effective medium in contributing towards education in general and social studies in particular. The inherent cross-circulation nature of electronic learning technology make it ideal medium that can be used not only during social studies lessons but also other school subjects E-learning can be an excellent medium for training young people in learning about and appreciating the culture heritage in its diversity. Computers and internet facilities are now in place in many state owned and private schools. It is envisaged that educator will see E-learning as a major teaching and learning device across all education institutions especially colleges of education. With its power of interactivity, multimedia and communication, the computer provides an excellent tool for social studies education.
The idea is that students (Pre-services teachers/teachers in training) will be active “participants” rather than “spectator” in teaching and learning process.
The use of e-learning tools for teaching and learning of social studies social studies as one of the core subjects in school curriculum was designed to inculcate in learners right attitudes, values, knowledge and skills for effective citizenry and enable the understanding the way to manage the environmental resources for maximum utilization. This is why Chikwelu (2007) defines social studies as an inter-disciplinary study of man and interaction with his environment and inculcation of right attitudes values, knowledge and skills for developing effective citizenry who contribute positive to the development of his society.
While Abimbade (2010) sees it as a discipline through which man studies and learns about the problem of interaction and adjustment of the changing world.
The status of a core subject accorded social studies at all levels of education in Nigeria, it also given credent by the national policy on education (FRN 2004).
In spite of the important place of social studies in our educational system, literatures such as Falade (2007) and Fagbemi, Giambari, Oyedum and Gibodi (2012) had revealed that there had been sharp fall in the interest and performance of student and pupils in social studies owing to an unbridled use to conventional lecture method in teaching and learning of social studies. This has resulted in high rate of moral bankruptcy, corruption and poor management of environment resources.
Usuf (2007) corroborates this view when he acknowledge the poor performance of students in social studies to poor teaching methods employed by teachers. The teaching of social studies lesson in college of education in Nigeria are usually carried out in the classroom during school hours but a time entails going for an excursion or filed trip to an environment different from usually school environment.
This enable student (Pre-service teacher) under the guidance of their teacher to discover the riches of a particular situation, site, surrounding, historic and artistic feature and the roles they serve. Visit to near by areas may be easier but a trip to far place or another country to witness the heritage richness it possesses will be difficult. This is where electronic learning can be employed to assist. All students can be given the opportunities to sample other ethnic group and countries heritage through the effective power of interactive multimedia.
Multimedia is the embodiment of test, graphic, animation, pictures, sound and videos clip and cab the easily used in social studies education. Curaphics play in extreme important role in the learning process. A look at existing teaching method will show the wide spread of use of graphic device and sound, movement and interactivity on a multimedia CD-ROM. It should also be noted that student can be provided with fact by using virtual reality system that transport them into environment created by the computer that generate there dimensional realistic scenes with which the student can interact. Abidoye, (2010) noted that introduction of computer disc (CD-ROM) has revolution the way of information stored, retrieved and disseminated.
Statement of the Problem
The importance of education is increasing because of increasing pressure to catch up with the developed world regarding, for example, global competitiveness (Hawkins 2002).
Before the introduction of e-learning many people who wanted to obtain college certificate and to complete for the few places that were offered by the public colleges of education.
Those offered places had to apply for study leave as they had to go through the traditional learning system. This kind of further education system was characterized by limited number of students that could be absorbed per an academic year and consequent removal from their places of work for the duration of their study.
Several studies have been carried out on academic performance especially on conventional students, but not much on e-learning students on social studies within college of education in Ikere-Ekiti. The need to serve this ground so as to extend the frontier of knowledge in order to help improve the unimpressive e-learners’ academic performance necessitates and serves as the motivating factor for undertaking the present piece of research so as to fill the existing important research gap.
The general objectives of this study was to establish the impact of e-learning on academic performance.
Specific Objectives of the Study
- To establish the role prior computer skills play academic performance
- To determine the impact of socio-demographic characteristics on academic achievement.
iii. To establish the impact of number of hours spent online/offline (Time management) on academic .
The following research questions were raised and answered in this study:
- To what extent have the social study teachers and students acquired electronic learning skill?
- What is the level of availability of e-learning infrastructure in college of education in Nigeria?
iii. To what extent do prior computer skills play in academic performance
- To what extent do socio-demographic characteristics influence academic achievement?
Significance of the Study
Significance of the study stems from the importance of E-learning in the teaching and learning of social studies in College of education Ikere Ekiti. Identifying the students’ attitudes towards its use in education and the information and data which this study is going to provide. Decision makers can benefit from such data and information and can foster the positive attitudes of the students and develop their attitudes. This will lead to good choice of the methods and activities which encourage students to use mobile phone in education in the future.
The result of this study may also contribute to the literature review with a study of great scientific value among the studies that dealt with using educational technology in college of education
The results may also introduce the potential impact of E-learning in Education, in training students and restructuring the polices of higher education, including curriculum and E-learning. The significance of the study is emphasized by the instrument of the study developed by the researchers that can be used in other subsequent studies. It is expected that graduate students and educational researchers. Who are interested in applying advanced technology in higher education may benefit from it.
Scope and Limitations of the Study
The present study reflects a number of limitations. Firstly, the student models of learning were identified on the basis of a specific sample comprising those under e-learning study model and those under the traditional study model. Secondly, the theoretical nature of this study limits its direct relevance for the educational praxis. Therefore, it is hoped that future research may additionally focus on how student cognitions about learning are influenced in the context of everyday learning environments.
The results could enable educational practitioners to encourage the adoption of student learning models which involves a deep oriented and self –regulated study strategy.
This study did not consider all the aspects e-learning influences but instead was restricted to those elements of e-learning that affect performance in one way or the other. The study did not also consider all students studying through the e-learning mode but only focused on the social studies students in college of education Ikere Ekiti
Operational Definition of Terms
Teaching: The activities of educating or instructing someone
Learning: Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behavior skills, values or preference and may involve synthesizing different types of information. It is the activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill by studying, practicing being taught or experiencing something.
E-learning: E-learning is learning utilizing electronic technologies to access educational curriculum outside of a traditional classroom. In most cases, it refers to a course, program or degree delivered completely online
Social Studies: Social studies are the various aspects or branches of the study of human society. Considered as an educational discipline
Impact: impact is the action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.
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