THE IMPLICATION OF NIGER DELTA CRISIS ON NIGERIA POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT.
This work focuses on the Niger delta crisis in Nigeria political development and it will also define the basic catalyst underlying the crises in Niger delta area. The various causes will be painted out and analysed. The study also exposed itself to the effect of crises as it may affect the political development of Nigeria nation.in chapter two which is the literature review and the conceptual analysis will talk various definitions of some scholars on high delta crisis. Furthermore, the work will touch some of the causes if the Niger delta crisis the federal constitution of 1960 which did not focused the Niger delta people. And also the implication on the unity among their ethnic nationalities i.e. the exploration of oil in the Niger delta area. Finally, I have be able to trace the origin of the Nigeria civil war to oil syndrome. The work will at the sometime recommend some systemic ways see that the Niger delta crisis must be solve locally. And the government should work with the local people of Niger delta to put in place a new constitutional compact transform them.
1.1. Background of Study
Over the years there are always be a crisis in Niger delta area of Nigeria. The said Niger delta area of Nigeria. Niger delta area which comprises seven state of Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, cross river, delta Edo River and Ondo could equally be term hot one or region. The fact is it unconnected with the level of exploitation and total neglect that have long is experienced by the inhabitant of the area. The iron of the matter is that this is said to be the fountain of the Nigeria economy since there has been a shift from the agricultural sector of the economy and hence Nigeria now depends on petroleum for her living despite the above fact these area have long suffered total neglect in term of health services deliver education and other infrastructural facilities.
Fundamental to the story of crude oil exploitation in Nigeria is the state of the environment in the creeks. The nature of on- going damage to the environment is usually captured by the movement for the survival of Ogoni people (MOSOP) an organization that has one more than any situation.
The reluctant of the Nigeria state to recognize and protect the environment apparently informed the view of the movement for the survival of Ogoni people (MESOP) among others that the state is only wagging a determined ecological war on the people of the war bearing state.
There are many tribes that constitute the Niger delta through the most pronounced one are the yaws and Iteseliris. These tribes always threaten to secede from Nigeria to Niger delta republic. They have often shut down most oil flow station in Warri only a few if not all companies operations are usually in a state of common at these various crisis periods.
The facts are that the Niger delta crisis has always threatens the cooperation existence of Nigeria. An environment a list in Warri one time said the most Itesekiri communities are devastated pointed out that are homes are being destroyed our people are being killed in the name local government creation and location of its head- quarters we believe there is more to it why we are being killed.
The Niger delta crisis in Nigeria could best be explained or understand using conflict and crises theory according to Sidney verbal exist when re- institutionalization within a performance area is needed.
It is also necessary turning point a crucial movement when development must move one way or the other marshalling resources of growth, recovery and further differentiation. Conflict on the other hand refers to a process a struggle over status power and scare resources in which in the aim of the opponent are to neutralize inure or eliminate. This introduction will enable us to have much insight into understanding of the problems, the causes and possible solution to the delta state crisis.
The conflict and crisis theory as regarded this study will make the analysis accurate and correct since theory enable one to prepared a universal base on background for a concept or statement for universal application and acceptability.
The examination of the linkage between the twin concept of conflict and crisis is germane here as this would provide the necessary background against which forces or phenomenon could breed or easily call for conflict and crisis in a given situation.
The issue of marginalization and total neglect of the Niger delta area are always been associated with crisis. His has informed Remi his is inaugural speech in November 23, 2002. In Port Harcourt to note that it is evidently cleared that the government is not obvious of then problem in Niger delta whose people has suffered in the hands of the successive Nigeria government. He further noted m the root cause(s) of the problems and violence in the Niger delta is oil and lack of government and leader presence.
One will observe that major of Niger delta crisis has always be challant attitudes of the government and the trans- national cooperation in the area. Less attention is paid to the welfare of the communities in the region in spite of the huge resources being exploited in the area.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The Niger delta communities have long been neglected exploited of course, marginalized. The assertion usually carries weight especially when we compare the attendant governmental activities in terms of survival delivery in the area of the health education and other infrastructures. People in Niger delta believe they can do better rightly or wrongly, that they product the nation wealth.
The people of the Niger delta felt that are not right and they have called the attention of the government to this sense of loss but those who should listen did not listen.
Various clashes arose between the communities and in which oil flow station especially in Warri are shutdown, workers are kidnapped and which definitely paralyses all business activities in the region and this has not been fair on the resources of the nation.
Ogoni is a waste land due to the four gases 35 year in very close proximity to human habitation. Over 100 oil wells in gardens a petrochemical complex two oils refineries a fertilizer plant and oil pipes lines.
The negative involvement of the government especially the past military regimes with specific focus on the Niger delta issues has always worsen the situation rather than relief. The killing of the activists which include the writer Kan saro wiwa, leader of the movement for survival of ogoni people (mosop) were done by the military government of late general Sani Abacha.
Sarowiwa and his group had comp lamed about the immoveable oil spills. Caused by the use of oil dared equipment and technology employed to maximise profit by multinational cooperation like the shell oil company which they claimed has destroy farm lands, stream and creets. As a result they said that the Ogoni fishermen have not only list their occupation but also there rich source of protein (ie) the mangrove which are the source of firewood and habitant for thrilling wealth of seafood such as olysters crabs mussels are now lost by the Ogoni people who make up about 500,000 of Nigeria’s 110 million population. The consequence is rising and instability in the polity with increasingly threats of possible breakdown of the Nigerian federations.
1.3 Objectives of the study
This research work tends to acknowledge the controversial of Niger Delta crisis in Nigeria. This piece of study will mark out the area as a crisis zone and tribes to look at the likely features that has made them to be unique compared to other region in Nigeria.
This study as stated above will look into the much deposited petroleum products in this region and how this has basic catalysts underlying the crisis in the Niger Delta Areas. The various causes will be pointed out and analyzed.
Also the sequential emergence of the crisis from one period of administration to the other would be observed. The various causes and time of events or dynamics underlying this crisis would be adequately examined. This study in a broader term will look into the effect of the crisis as it may affect the political development of the Nigerian nation. The likely implications of the Niger Delta crisis a evidenced and facts may have revealed would be critically pointed out analyzed.
1.4 Justification of the Study
This study on the Niger Delta crisis has become necessary as sit revolves around the core of the Nigerian Economy and it has got a lot to tell on the political development of the Nigeria polity.
The study, in view of the above is out to look into the problems facing the Niger Delta people and at the same time suggests alternative measures in solving these problem besides those one being taken by both government and the oil companies in the past.
The Niger Delta issue has attracted the newsmen in Asaba A’ccused the federal government for neglecting the oil producing Area and for failing to realize that most of the oil communities have difficult terrain hence the urgent for attention to be paid to such areas.
Many ideas like resources control is being clamouring by some states, onshore, offshore dichotomy bill being initiated by the Federal House of Assembly are products of the efforts put in place in order to put an end to the Niger Delta crisis.
The basic assumptions in the research work are as follows:
- The Niger Delta area of Nigeria as a result of the large oil deposit in the area.
- There has always been crisis in the area as a result of the total neglect of the area in spite of the above.
- The political development or stability of the Nigeria nation may be if governments fail to attend to the problems and requests of the Niger Delta people.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research work tends to look at causes and effect of the Niger Delta crisis as it affects the political stability and development of Nigeria nation.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
The mode of fact collection in this work would be based on analysis of data collected form the relevant primary and secondary sources as well as oral interview of some of the inhabitant of the Niger Delta area.
The sensitivity of the crisis in Niger Delta has made data collection difficult as most newspapers and magazines are local ones from the area concerned and at times reflects biases of the Niger Delta people.
On the part of the government it becomes difficult to access the government activities in the area as most a claimed ones in the news media area more propaganda.
Even oral interview and information collection are often difficult because of the frequent clashes and crisis in the area.
In the real sense material are not easily accessible since no much book has been written on the issue in question. However, all these problem and limitation will be overcome by limiting the research study to the few available journal texts, magazines, news etc.
Also, participating approach to gathering information about the frequent occurrence of events in the area is useful.
1.7 Definition of Major Terms
The major concept used in this work need to be explained or defined for easy communication and clarity of purpose, some of these are: –
CONFLICT: – This refers to a process a struggle over status power and scare resources in which the aim of the opponents are to neutralize or injure.
CRISIS: – The term implies in this study a time of great difficulties, danger civil disorders and unrest in any political environment with serious consequence for the citizen in the real sense, material are not easily accessible since no much book has been written on he issue in question. Howver, all these problems and limitation will
POLITICAL INSTABILTY: – political instability is changes within a society which so not confirm to or proceeds from the rules governing organization process in the society. It also sees as a phenomenon that arises if there is a in constituency on inequality in the society.
POLITICAL VIOLENCE: – Can be seen as the preventing mode of allocation of he values authoritatively.
1.8 Organization of Chapters
This work focuses on the Niger Delta political development and it will also define the basic catalysts underlying the crisis in Niger Delta area. The various causes will be printed out and analyzed.
The chapter one exposed us to the effect of crisis at it may affect the political development of the Nigeria nation.
In chapter two which is the literature review and the conceptual analysis will talk about various definitions of some scholars on Niger Delta crisis.
Also, in chapter four is the implications of the Niger Delta crisis and the political development of unity among the ethnic nationalities and the implications of succession bid by the Niger Delta people in Nigeria.
Lastly in chapter five which is the last chapter study contain the summary, recommendation and the references.
Aja, A and Emeribe A (2002), Policy and contending issues in Nigeria’s National development strategy, Enugu John Jacons Publisher.
Ake, Claude (2001) The Political Question in Alapiki Henry, Port Harcourt; Emahi Printing and Publishing.
Ake, C. (1981) A Political Economy of Africa, London, Longman.
Alapiki, H. (2005) The Political Economy of Globalization, Port Harcourt, Amethyst and Colleagues, Publishers.
Akinjide (2002) Environment Problems of the Niger Delta Lagos; Fredric Ebert Publisher.
Azaki, Steve (2007) Inequalities in Nigeria Politcs, Y-books, Ibadan, James Publisher.
Ashton, Jones (1998) The Human Ecosystems of the Niger Delta, Ibadan, Kraft Book Publisher
Briggs A (2008) “Niger Delta struggle minus criminal militancy” Lagos; Vanguard New Papers Publisher.
Era’s (2007) community intervention in the Niger Delta; A model for development Ibadan, Kraft Publisher.
2.1 Literature Review
The crisis in the Niger Delta are began in the 1950’s with the discovering of large oil in area. The area gradually became increasing source of rasion during Nigeria’s difficult years of independence, military rule and a series of coups that saw an only ineffectual legislation to deal with the pending environment arises. The crisis in the Niger Delta are is_synonymous with the non-chalant attitude of the Nigeria government in attendance_ toward the people of the area. In fact the government and the multinationals in the area have failed to put into account the welfare of the people.
Various scholars and writers have_ observed the problem and the likely affect of such problems many scholars have resulted to me viewing the conflict theories. While some proposed various form of government like federal style and even different administrative system and principle are always suggested.
In his own view Olufemi Mimiko (1998:178) traced the environmental degradation in Niger Delta Area in Nigeria to the crude oil exploitation. He added that the natures of the on going damage to the environment is captured by the movement for the survival of Ogoni people (MOSOP) an organisation that has done movie than any other to draw attention to the situation. This organisation had left on stone unturarred in calling the attention of the government and the multinational in the area to the people of the area even their lands their water is being polluted and thereby making foods unproductive in the area.
According to movement for the survival of Ogoni people (MOSOP) with four gas flames burning 24 hour a day over 35 year in very close proximity to human habitation over 1,200 oil wells in village background and front gardens a petrochemical complex two oil pipe line crisis crossing the landscape above round Ogoni is a waste land”
The fact is that, there has been an extension of the problem in Niger Delta area to the large Nigerian community especially in the area of government and economy at large it has much to tell on the political development of the Nigerian nation. This has informed S.T Akindele and O.R Olaope (1998:15) to observe that on a contemporary note. Such problems have take dangerous dimension within the Nigeria political landscape such that strife and glory political violence which bothers on conflicts are now characteristic of many rural and urban central in Nigeria. The inevitable fact is that these are many development project supposed to have been put in place by the government and even the multi-nationals I these areas but are not there this should not have been the case for the Niger Delta area is the primary source of Nigeria income which suppose to be given priority.
It should be noted that the Niger Delta region have not been compensated dully and this has always triggens conflicts and crisis in the area. Around 1000 standard cubit feet of gas in produced as a by product for every barrel of oil. At present 70% of gas is flared gas does not damage the environment alone, but it has been loss to the Nigeria government. If dully preserved and processed will yield the Nigeria government but of naira. Since the government cannot manage the petroleum product well, compensation because impossible this has informed Egbuns K. (1999:53) to observe thet the Niger Delta is the habitation of an aggregation of ethnic nationalities generally grouped with other species else where in Nigeria as the minorities.
The harsh ecology of the region has made it individable to the vagaries of climate element. But nature in its wisdom reward edits own imprudence with a reservisors of mineral and largeness resources.
Also, another writer have traced the cause of Niger Delta crisis to the violation of human right abuses Chijoke Nwa Somba in a book published by itama Right watch, a well know and nightly respected international organisation has catalogued human rights violation that occur in the Niger Delta in the process of oil exploitation and production by the major multinationals and the Nigerian state.
The Niger Delta is graphically described in the book as being “the side of major confrontation between the people who live there and the Nigeria government security forces resulting in extra judicial executions arbitrary detention and characinoid restrictions on the right to freedom of expression association and assembly. The book assents that Human Right abuses in the oil producing communities’ ecological disasters and degradation have continued unabated and the basic situation in the Delta remain unchanged.
What usually triggers conflict in the Niger Delta area is the level of economics success of the multinational even at the expense of the communities. According to Wale Adeyemo (1993:30) white the oil producing the oil multinational companies which in most cases deliberately discharge oil spillage home to the bank with corrupt government of friends and their agents. This level of exploitation and destruction has angered the people in oil communities leading to protect and other forms of complaint.
The major delta crisis have always threatened on the peace and stability of the area and if not Nigeria society as a whole. The area has been somehow ungovernable due to these conflict political developments could only be achieved in an environment where there is no conflict in fact civil strife has so far been recorded in this region and which is usually between groups. Olaope (1998:115) observed that” the concept of civil strife on violence audits course is usually catalysed by the competitive drive by two or more groups of people for the respective attainment or maximization of benefits that could only be achieved by either of them but not by both the arguments is that the crisis in this area is due to the unequal distribution of wealth or benefits accrued from the at being produced in the area.
Another writer Owel Bekanfa observed that “even under the murderous military regime, American interest reminded how to make the Niger Delta stable for only business by transnational at companies especially those with American links. It is not secret that serve in years provided the government especially those when led by military to put the Niger Delta protest under control and guarantee man atmosphere to exploit the oil resources. So the oil companies could reach their maximum production under stable atmosphere.
In an attempt to take care of the problem confronting this region various moves by various regimes in Nigeria have suffered the federal military government led by General Ibrahim Babangida responded to these calls by creating the oil mineral producing area development commission (OMPADEC) and in Ondo State Area of Nigeria Delta having Ondo State oil producing area development commission (OSOPADEC) Huge sum of money was made available to alleviate the problem of enurament degradation in Niger Delta region.
Unfortunately, much of the resources were siphoned into primate pocket by corrupt officials acting in collaboration with local businessmen and traditional rules.
From the area by the time commission was improved the standard of living of its intended beneficiaries, have had achieved a liability of well more than 5.5 million (S.T. Akindele and O.R. Olaope 1998:15).
The hoisted among the various groups that constitute the Niger Delta has always caused conflict among them. This is evident in the recent antagonism against the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) the NDDC act which established the commission was an attempt by the Obasanjo administration for long term peace and for the people driver development strategy to the Niger Area the provision in the 1999 constitution that allocate thirteen percent (13%) of total oil revenue to the oil producing states of the federation and also established a Niger Delta development commission (NDDC) a federation government agency whose duty is to accelerate economics development and provide social infrastructure in the area should be commendable it must however be stressed that these are conciliatory measures that address the symptoms of the malady, and to not begin to tackle the fundamental demand of resources control and political autonomy for all geo- political units in the country the prerequisite for a state and prosperous Nigeria (E-mail (edaurg: Uk March 2000).
The Niger Delta development commission (NDDC) whose function is for the state like Abia Akwa-ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, River Delta, Edo, Imo, and Ondo but in a swift reaction, a group led by power fuel core Niger Delta state. Stated that state like Abia, Imo and Ondo do not belongs to the Niger Delta communities. Hence, ethnic groups and states that constituted the Niger Delta often engaged in communal dashes thus making it difficult for them to agitate for their righted at time ( the Washington times 30 September 2003) the argument is that most crisis in this are as one borne out of lacks of unity among these groups that constitute the Niger Delta region.
Many scholars and writers have also pointed out the huge effect of the crisis that often effect the region- while some see it as a phenomenon that is capable a paralyze the economy if the nation.
Yawe/Washington times Nigeria Ltd has noted that “———- the group led by militant local youths have hacked aircraft operated by the oil companies and have embarked on inter-ethnic wars that have rendered the region at times ungovernable and economic activities particularly oil exploitation difficult or at least profitable”.
The long neglect of the Niger Delta region had often caused a lot of problem among the government or the multi-national and the national and the communities of the Niger Delta and Nigeria society at large. Zik Gibermore (2002:1) opined that let it be clear to those concerned that the continued marginalization and neglect of the Niger Delta region has a spiral effect. And unit the Niger Delta question is properly addressed solution to the problem of fuel scarcity youth restweries power tussle among oil bearing communities and many other similar issues will continue to remain elusive for a time to come.
The Niger Delta problems have demanded serious attention from private, public and individual to make suggestion and recommendation as to the way of putting an end to the arises. When some trace the problem to ineffective government acts and regulation and they there by met act and regulation and they thereby submitted that government should put in place laws and regulation that would not only favours the state, but should always consider the masses especially the Niger Delta comminute.
Statement like the one above indicts that government as being responsible for the problem of the Niger Delta region visa- vis environmental degradation and under development this has prompted Zik Gibermre to note that “we have said time and again that the oil/gas regulatory act, as it currently being operated in Nigeria is to weak and needed to be reviewed to an accepted standards.
In his own view, Woye (1999) opined that “the new government should given high priority to a legislative and economic frame work for the permanent solution of the Niger Delta crisis it should also implement” feasible economic and social development including integrated and customable agricultural development consideration should also be given to establishing a university in Bayelsa state. He further stressed that the regime of President Olusegun Obasanjo should immediately set up dialogue and arbitration process to resolve all conflicts and guarantee immediate restoration of law and order in Niger Delta.
In his inaugural speech President Olusegun Obasanjo list the crisis in the oil producing area as his numberance one priority issue. He promised that “but would be forwarded within weeks of the inception of his administration to the National Assembly for ecological infrastructural and other development”. All these attempts were directed towards putting an end to the Niger Delta crisis; Yawe also noted that Obasanjo promised to set up a group to prepare a comprehensive development plan of all section of the oil producing communities to improve mutual understanding and communications. Since the rights of the people of Niger Delta are no more guaranteed Chijoke has recommended that “oil companies should encourage the development of non governmental organization that are engaged in environmental and human right advocacy. It caution that people whose background oil is taken must be involve in developmental programmes and that oil is taken must be involve in developmental programmes and that oil companies do these thing that can lead to protection, promotion and respect of human rights.
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METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH
The method used for the research work is primarily sources of data collection which is internet.
Other primary sources used include journals, newspaper and internet.
3.1 The Course of the Niger Delta Crisis
Despite the fundamental nature of the crisis in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria, since 1980s the struggle for survival of the Niger Delta people have always change forms and direction. Through, the crisis or project have always been against the government and the oil multinational companies. It is very clear that the channels and measures being used by the Niger Delta people have changed with time. Onduke (2001:2) observed this when he noted that “the Niger Delta communities have been the vanguard forcing on early 1990s and the consequent execution of Ken Saro Wiwa in November 10, 1995 by the federal military, Junta which was describe by human right group as a travesty of justice the military invasion of Ijaw communities consequent upon the Kaina declaration and the Odi direct action of 1998 to 1999 marked a new interesting interface in oil politics in Nigeria the conflict has moved to 1999 marked a new interesting interface in oil politics in Nigeria the conflict has moved from simple to complex from mere project to armed struggle. It was a face oil between the Deltans and government but, even turned it around to involve oil
companies. The consequences increase in the human rights abuses and the exploitative acts of the Deltans. The fact here is that the likely action of the government on the oil companies in pursuing their demand.
Michaee (1999:3) observed that the level of anger against the federal government and oil companies means thate there are further incidents of hostage taking and other crimninal acts.
The crackdown in the Niger Delta over New year (1999 indicates the extent to which the current government (Obasanjo regime) which has other wise showed increase respect for human right is crush peaceful project rather than to seek to address the issue being protested.
As the Niger Delta crisis has almost become a perennial one bother the government various commissions boards and agencies have been inaugurated by attendant regime before the after independent in Nigeria.
The will ink commission set up by government in 1957 gave birth to the Nigeria Delta development Board (NDDB).
The (NDDB) was a special agency established to tackle the development need of the area “ this has informed Okonta Ike (2006:6) to note that” It is significant, however that in 1957 a year before the production of oil in their area commenced the communities of the Niger Delta and several other minority ethnic groups in the country. Had complained to Willink commission set up to enquire into their fears and negotiations began for a Central government in allocation of social amenities and political appointments. The military coups of 1996 put and end to dream of the Niger Delta development board (NDDB). It was this failure on the side of the government to meet the demand of the Niger Delta that led to the formation of the government for the survival Ogboni people (MOSOP) in 1990. MOSOP is an umbrella organization with several associations and groups communities in central part of the Delta. MOSOP was unique in that it was a grassroots by virtually all Ogboni with a clear, articulated goal contained in Ogboni Bill of Right (OBR). “The Ogboni people in pubic ceremony presided over by Ogboni communities leaders. When no response was foruth coming from the company and the government, MOSOP followed up by organizing a peaceful deconstruction in January 1993 in which 3,000.000 Ogboni Men, Women and children participated”.
An attempt was made by the military government of Ibrahim Babangida in establishing another development agency to look at the problem in the Niger Delta area. Okonta further noted that “when the Nigeria head of state, General Ibrahim Babangida established yet another development agency; oil mineral producing Area development commission (OMPADEC) for the benefit of the Niger Delta in 1992 he was, in a manner of speaking trying to INP the brewing storm in the bud”. The fact is that, the attendant crisis in the Niger Delta regions always demand setting up of one agency or the other by the government to meet such demands. While failure of the government and the oil multi national companies to meet the yearning of the Niger Delta communities result in forming militant group or oraginzation since the use of peaceful means of agitation by the Niger Delta people have become a thing of the past.
The Niger Delta people were in 1993 mobilized by the movement for the survival of Ogboni people (MOSOP) under the leadership of then Ken Zaro Wiwa against the reluctantly conducted presidential election by Babangida, In Ogboni however, events had taken a life of their own, then Saro – Wiwa and MOSOP has sufficiently mobilized the people to such a level that they over whelming boycotted the elections arguing constitution on which basis the election was being conducted and they would prefer a new political arrangement based on the demand contained in the Ogboni Bill of Rights”.
In fact the course of struggle or crisis in the Niger Delta area have changed from individualism to that of common one where groups and associations are being formed to champion the struggle. The people of Niger Delta were made as an instrument in the hands of the British trader in the 1859s. forcing dubious treaties upon local things and princess and offering the, “protection” in town for allowing British traders to do as they pleased in their domains was the order of the day.
The cause of the Niger Delta crisis could best be captured in the declaration of Niger Delta Bill of Right.
Chief Mapatha Prince will (2008:1) noted this when he stated that “we the ethnic nationalities of the Niger Delta regions (inhabitation of present day Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Ondo and River State with a population of over 30 million people being culturally different and with unique problems not peculiar to or with any other nationality within the frame work of the republic of Nigeria, do conscientiously present to the people and government of Nigeria Ike following established facts.
- That the Niger Delta people comprises of independent nationalities with their own traditions, custom and forms of government before the British conference of 1884, in which the continent of Africa was partitioned into spheres influence by European imperialists.
- That it was the after math of the Berlin conference that Nigeria (Amalgation of nationalities) becomes a British dominion and the nicer Delta people coerced into the colonial state of Niger 1914 against their wish fundamentals rights and beliefs.
- That the ethnic nationalities of the Niger Delta have been in existence independently for over 3000 years before the Nigerian state was created in 1914.
- That Niger Delta people were callously merged with other nationalities in 19s when the British divided the Southern protectorate into Eastern and Western regions.
- That the protest to the forced union was in testimony before the Willink commission of inquiry into minority fears in 1958.
- That the aforementioned protest led in part to the creation of mid – western region in 1963. Rivers and Cross River state as in 1994 and the state of bayelsa in 1996.
- That exploration and exploitation of crude oil from the land and sea
S of the Niger delta people commenced in 1937 by shell D’ Aarcy and commercial quantities of oil for export was strucked at the Olobiri (Bayelsa) state in 1956: Ogoni (river state) in 1958 and from various oil field of the Niger delta region. That the following companies are on record to have prospected foreoil region mobile, gulf (chevron) ELT, Agrip, Texaco total, State oil British, gas Tenneco dimminex and sun oil.
- That on over 40 years oil exploration the Niger delta nationalities have provide the Nigeria state with a total revenue estimated 53000 billion but our people still live in object poverty.
- That even with such sacrifice and magnanimity aimed at promoting unity and national cohesiveness the Niger Delta people have been plagued by state sponsored terrorism, want on neglect ecological catastrophes, deliberate, destruction of historical villages, sacred institution farm lands, fishing settlements, constant mandating of air, water and river pollution by hydrocarbons.
- That the dubious and nefarious policy alliance between the Nigerian state and multinational companies arrived at suppression and deprivation of the fundamental rights of the Niger Delta is the source of their political marginalization and the degradation of the quality of human life in the region.
- That the Niger Delta people are deprived of the control of their own resources for development inclinatory republic due to promulgation of the exploitative decrees and shadow legislations.
(1) The petroleum act of 1969 and 1993
(2) The land use act of 1978 and 1993
(3) The national water way decree of 1997
- That we want top put on record that sympathizes with the recent declaration of the Shania Islamic legal system in some Northern states of the Federation as it is their religion right and obligation but, we unequivocally insist on not being part of a federation that elevates a religion law above the constitution.
- That in view of the aforementioned incentive and callous development within Nigeria state we the officials of the Niger Delta congress hereby make this binding resolution on November 10,2007 on the anniversary of the dudicial murder of Ken Saro-wiwa to be known as the NIGER DELTA BILL OF RIGHTS and field with the united nation in New York as follows.
(i) The Niger Delta people hereby seek self determination and the right 100% control of our resources , or falling which the Niger Delta people hereby request for political autonomy similar in status to then oppressed indigenous peoples e.g East Timor .
(ii) The Niger Delta people insist on the right to develop our political languages.
(iii) That the oppressed people of Niger Delta be recognized as people of distinct nationalities.
(iv) We urge the united nation to summon the Nigeria state into question and conduct a plebiscite for the nationalities of the Niger Delta to vote for self determination as guaranteed by the united nation declaration in the rights of indigenous people.
The recent trends and development in the Niger Delta had drawn attention of the international communities. The crisis in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria is as dangerous as a key of gun-powder.The crisis, if not quickly resolved by Obasanjo administration ,is an instrument to the disintergration of the Nigeria society and even man lead to economic down.
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Ibaba, S. (2005) Understanding the Niger Delta Crisis, Port Harcourt; Amethyst and Colleagues Production.
4.1 Implication of the Niger Delta Crisis on the political Development in Nigeria
The effect of the Niger Delta crisis have always been an open would that can lead the Nigeria nation to ungovernable atmosphere the most or less perennial Niger Delta crisis has become a treat to the Nigerian society most often peace is unguaranteed right of the masses are violated law and order are not obeyed, political and economic activities in the area are in darkness and total disarray in fact, all the above fact, if put together are stigona to the Nigeria economic and ineffective development. Though peace at times is termed to be function of crisis. The ever recorded situation in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria since independence or beginning of oil exploration and explotation, which marked the genesis of crisis in the area has gone against the above assertion. The conflict which originally supposed to bring peace on the land has always escalated the problem in the area. This has informed Ondouku (2001:3) conflicts are inherently negative and destructive.
The implication of the continuous crisis in the Niger Delta area of the Nigeria unlike the quick forgotten civil war of 1967 are quite imminent I want to believe that unless the crisis gets over quickly Nigeria many soon experience yet another syndrome of civil war or other serious political and economic misfortunes. I want to mention three vehicles that may drive Nigeria to its doom. If the crisis is not resolved quickly.
Whenever, there is crisis in the Niger Delta area lives are wasted materials and lost. Unity among nationalities are put in doubt and above, all psychological wounds are inflicted in the minds of the community people as to what is their own position in the Nigeria society.
In a broadly analysis the implication of the Niger Delta crisis on the political development could be discussed under the following perspective.
4.2 Implication on Human and Materials and Resources
The people of the Niger Delta communities have been living in peace not until was began to be explored and exploited in the area.
Okonta observed this when he noted that “that violence confrontation between the local communities the oil companies and the government began only in the early amnesties and before then the area was an basis of peace and tranquillity inhabited by a contented and law abiding people” since the crisis began people are killed harassed and exiled while material resources such as oil piper lines companies machines are vandalized.
In fact many prominent environment activities and thousands of the Niger Delta people have been killed in various crisis by 1995 over two thousand Ogoni people including the MOSOP leader Ken-Saro Wiwa were by dead (Okonta 2003). Those that were not killed were sent into exile. In his words, Okonta noted that following Nigeria’s transition to civilian rule in May 1991, several government for the survival of Ogoni people (MOSOP) activities who had gone into exile during Abacha’s regime of terror returned to the country” (ibid) people especially the youth are slaughtered.
The crisis in the Niger Delta has always resulted in damages of properties worth millions of naira. Jee Ajaero observed thus when he quoted senator Aata saying “ The Warri crisis had left most itsecori communities devastated pointing out that our homes are being destroy our people are being killed in the name of local government creation and location of its head quarter (Joe 1999:2).
Among other that were killed in the subsequent attempt of the government to put down the Niger Delta crisis or shut up the people totally were Isaac boro, professor Dauda Ake and countless member of promising youth activist (Onduku 2001:8).
The point here is that in a society where the interest of the minority (especially where the economic power of such society like Nigeria is tied to the mineral resources of such community i.e. Niger Delta) are not taken care of there may be political instability.
The outcome of such situation is that the people will take violence means. In agitating for such rights and interest. The local mave now opted for hostage taking hijacking and kidnapping of expatriate oil company workers and demand for reason and repeated invasion and blocking of oil installation.
The economic implication of such attempt and actions is obvious. Ondukus further noted that in 1993, for instance the operations and activities of shell were disrupted by about a hundred command disturbances leading to the loss of source 42million barrels of crude oil worth about 3689 billion of naira in Ogoni “rally on January 1993 in all the company estimates that over 60 percent of spills and leakage affecting its instillation are cause by acts of sabotage by aggrieved oil producing communities of the Niger Delta (Onduko ibid). are implication is that Nigeria many have economic recession if this crisis should continue.
Since the economy of any nation will alone dictate its politics then the political environment of Nigeria may become unstable and undeveloped.
Implication on the Unity among the Ethnic Nationalities
Since the exploration and exploitation of oil in the Niger Delta area the level of unity among the ethnic nationalities have diminished. Ever before the oil business started in the region. The Niger Delta area was quite consolidated. In fact in recent times events have shown that government action and policies have always plunged the Niger Delta community to the other their policy implementation. This may be borne out of the readiness of a particular people- taking to the government side while other may be it as selling their conscience and that of their communities. Those taken to government side may eventually benefit while the other people are abandoned. This usually creates a wide gap between such contending communities and which oftener leads to ethnics and communal rivalry clashes.
In this work crackdown in the Niger Delta in may 1999 Michael Fleshman observed that the immediate cause of crisis was the 1999 decision on by no deceased dictator General Sanmi Abacha to relocated a local government authority (effective it a town council) in Warri from district occupied by the majority Ijaw people to that of the minority Ltsekiri the move was made to boosten the despised dictators political fortune and to punish the Ijaw community for it. The Ijaw communities for its unrevealingly visible opposition to his regime resentment in the Ijaw communities boiled over on inauguration May 9, 1999. When Ijaw activities protested the installation of a disputed local government area trigger clashes between the communities and spilling over to the Urhobo communities whose young man also battled armed Itsekiri youth Obasanjo presented in July 19, 1999. Bill to establish the Niger Delta development commission (NDDC) to the national assembly in compliance with his inaugural pledge the but stated that the Niger Delta is compose of the following states Abia, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross river, Edo, Imo, Ondo and River states. In a swift reaction a granted by powerful individual in the area calling itself. Indigenes of they are Niger Delta organised a protest against the bill saying that such states as Abia, Imo, and Ondo did not belong to the Niger Delta area.
The issue is always that since there have been no uniform development environment presence among the communities would have to go difference in their effort to struggle for survival. This has raised the corned of Yawe Emmanuel; when he noted that, “the lack of unity among various communities; ethnic groups and state that constitute he Niger Delta often leads to communal clashes, thus making it difficult for them to inform a united front and fight for their rights so the ethnic nationalities have not found a plane ground in presenting their grievance to the government and the incessant resort to violence among the communities sis a threat to violence among the communities is a threat to the survival of the Niger Delta people. So that, a formidable and stable society could only be but out of peaceful co-existence of the people in a given society or polity the political development of Nigeria is quite undoubted. It these perennial ethic clashes do not end.
Implication of Secession Bid by the Niger Delta People
The crisis that ever rocked the Niger Delta area which was usually borne out of the devastating state of thing in the area have always sent signal of self-determination to the people of the area. The argument often raised by Niger Delta people in the course of their struggle is usually equitable allocation of the political appointment and resource control of their local resources.
The civil war of 1967-1970 was fundamentally an oil war and the victor was quick to take control of the booty, scant regard was given to the people on whose land the oil was derived and all through the oil boom years lasting to 1980 they were conspicuous in their absences when it comes to allocation of infrastructures and Sunday social amenities (Okonta, 2006:1) whenever there is crisis in the Niger delta people especially in the area of total neglect of the area what quickly strike the mind to the Niger Delta people is having their existence would be more guaranteed. Beside the attempt made by the fast to from “the Biafra Republic” a lot of succession moves and proposals have often been made by the people of Niger Delta in subsequent years. The latest in memory is the declaration of the Niger Delta but of rights made by the Niger Delta congress. This was mainly an agitation for self-determination by the Niger Delta people. This has been fully discussed in chapter three of this project.
The instability in Nigeria at aimed its fullest status in the civil war period (1967 – 1979) the nature and direction of which was also greatly influenced by the selfish calculation of Western economic interest focusing strictly on the nation’s crude oil reserve the flames and the smother of the civil war is not yet another civiler. The consequences of this crisis is raising tension and instability in the Niger Delta area with increasing plausible of possible breakdown of the Nigerian federation.
We have given enough indication in this chapter that the Nigerian state is convulsing “die” as a result of the acute contractions and crisis thrown up by the over bearing place of crude oil in the Nigeria economy. It would then have been a case of crude oil not only under developing but actually killing a nation (Nigeria) the co-existence of Nigeria nation especially in the Niger Delta area have been treated and is still under the fear of being teared apart if the crisis in the area should hinger more than necessary. The political and economic development of Niger state cannot be guaranteed in the face of the dusk – to- down crisis in the Niger Delta area.
Ashton, J. (2002) The Human ecosystems of the Niger Delta: Ibadan; Kraft Publishers
Ajai, A (2001) Sustainable maintenance Option for the Nigeria Road Network Port Harcourt: Amethyst and Colleagues Publisher.
Ake, C (2005) A Political Economy of Africa, London Longman Publisher.
Ake, Claude (2001) The Nigeria Political Process Emhai Printing and Publishing and Publishing.
Ekekwe, Eme (2005) Class and state in Nigeria; Lagos; Longman.
Idorinige, P.O. (2000) “Niger Delta Development; History and Appraisal Regime” in Tasie, G.O, Journal of Niger Delta Studies, Vol. 2 No 1.
Ibaba, S. (2005) Understanding the Niger Delta Crisis, Portharcourt, Amethyst and Colleagues Publishers.
Ojakorotu, V. (2008) “Internationalization of oil Violence in the Niger of Nigeria, Journal of International Relation, Vol 7, No 1.
5.0 Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion
So far, from studies carried out in this work I have been able to point out the origin, causes and likely effects of the Niger Delta crisis on the present and future political and economic life of Nigeria.
In the first instance it is observed that the crisis in the Niger Delta area is purely am oil crisis. The exploration and exploitation 1950s marked the beginning of the crisis is the area.
We have been able to trace the origin of the Nigeria civil war to oil syndrome. This must have been informed by the nefarious attitude of the government and the of government and the oil comparison which have put the Niger Delta communities or the East in general in total environment degradation and political marginalization. Okonta noted this when he observed that, “civil war was fundamentally an oil war…. Scant regard was given to the people on whose land the oil was derived all through the oil boom years lasting to 1980, they are conspicuous in their absence when it come to all allocating of infrastructure and Sunday social Amenities (Okonta 2006:1).
It is also clear that, the crisis in the Niger Delta has its roots from the failure of the ‘Willink commission of 1957 to listen or address the complaints made to it by the people of Niger Delta of their fears as minority group as negotiations began for constitutional frame work with which the country would be granted independence from Britain, that they were being neglected by the regional and central government in the allocation of social amenities and political appointments. The problems or crisis in the area would lomg have been over, sat, the Niger Delta communistic. The president of the Niger Delta congress Chief Mpaka Prince will observe this in the declaration of Delta bill of right. When he opined that ‘the Niger Delta are deprived of the control of their own resources for development in a unitary due to the promulgation of the following exploitative decree and shadow legislations.
- The petroleum act of 1969 and 1991
- The land use act of a 1978 and 1998
- The national waterways.
Oil companies in connections with the government usually used brutal and bloody military actions against oil producing communities.
This has worsened the situation instead of solving it. In view of the above, live and properties have wasted in the Niger Delta area. Michael fleshman observed this when he stated that, the violence that has divested the city of Warri near chevron’s scarves tank farm is only the rage and most tragic manifestation of the rage sweeping and impoverished communities of Nigeria’s oil field after decades of repression and exploitation by violence began in late May. 600 homes have been destroyed as many as gtree hundred people have died and thousand more have fled the center and outlying residential districts to escape attacks by hundred of young men in military uniforms armed with machine gun and assault rifles “Michael:1999:1).
Summarily, the Niger Delta crisis had always been a threat to the co-existence of the Nigeria polity and it is often a pointer to the imminent breath down of the political stability and development in Nigeria, if not addressed. 5.1 Recommendation
For there to be long lasting peace unity, harmony love and progress in the oil rich Niger Delta region. It is identified that in addition to introducing a culture of peace and education and post conflict reconstruction the sustainable development option is considered most appropriate. Therefore, to build confidence for the oppressed, marginalized and displaced people of the Niger Delta region in the midst of poverty, hinder deprivation devastation dehumanization human right violation and socio-economic, political and culture, injustice and understanding of the fundamentals of strategy sustainable development and conflict prevention and resolution should be a matter of concern by all interest groups. This sustainable development option should be one that would ensure sustainability and survivability of the society; bothpresent and future; for which it is focused.
In view of the above facts; I want to recommend among other things that Nigeria should go back to the constitutional hand writing of the functional federal state of 1960 – 1966. This has informed Okonta to note that, it has been shown that Nigeria made more social and economic development between the period of 1960 – 1966 when it functioned as a true federal state with residence power in the four regions than after the civil war in 1960 when the military government imposed a unitary state on the country stifling local initiative.
(1) Meaning of puberty
(2) Signs and symptoms of puberty
(3) Physical Developments at puberty.
MEANING OF PUBERTY
Puberty is the process of physical changes by which a child’s body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction to enable fertilization. It is initiated by hormonal signals from the brain to the gonads; the ovaries in a girl, the tastes in a boy. On average, girls is begin puberty at age 10-11; boys at ages 11-12. Girls usually complete puberty by ages 15-17, whiles boys usually complete puberty by ages 16-17.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PUBERTY IN BOYS
During puberty, boys will notice their bodies develop and change as they begin to look more like a man’s body.
(1) They will grow taller
(2) They develop more body hair and odour.
3) They will develop their sexual organs as well as more sexual feelings. Puberty causes many physical and emotional changes for every boy’s body. Through boys typically begin puberty between the age of 9-14 and the changes of puberty follow a pattern, every body develops at his own pace.
(4) Increase in the size of reproductive organs e.g Testicides, Penis and Scrotum.
(5) Hair growth in private part and places previously had very thin or little hair or do not have at all.
(6) Chest becomes broader
(7) Acne outbreak
(8) Erection and Wet dreams
(9) Cracked Voice
and converting Nigeria into a “renter” state solely dependent an oil receipts. In the particular case of the Niger Delta with its peculiar and different geographical terrain, it makes sense that local people who understand the area and its delicate ecosystem be given a degree of Autonomy, fashioned out and guaranteed by a new resources at their disposal (Okonta, 2008:8). Thus a new constitutional arrangement restoring agency and guaranteed by an new constitutional compact that would enable them to deploy their natural genius to reproduce themselves with the resources at their disposal (Okonta 2008:8). Thus a new constitutional arrangement restoring agency and autonomy to local actors would be multi-dimensional in achievement and purpose.
Nigeria would have taken firm and concrete step towards returning the ecological threatened Niger Delta to the path of environment health the local people enjoying the freedom to utilize their skills in the development from the central government would become more stable and united politically as key economic and political actors turn their attention to their various region where the real actors is.
Also, all forms of military trade farming should be laid to rest in th Niger Delta area, either by the government oil companies on the community people.
Okonta lamented over the relentless state of violence in the Niger Delta area when he argues that, …… we thus condemn unequivocally and unreservedly, the relentless chain of executions, rape. Wholesales sacking of villages. Kidnapping and the recknless use of violent language on the part of the oil companies, the government and the youth in the Niger Delta. We have always argued that violence is a deadly virus that spawns new pocked of violence in a various and remitting cycle, spreading through the entire body polities and revenging it beyond repair (Okonta 2008:3).
In an alternative, I will recommend the president Yaraduas administration to set up a development body on agency like the Niger Delta people and that all the traditional ruler in the area should be automotive members. Most agencies, so far put in place by various past regime have suffered a great extinction. They normally fail in standing up to the challenges for which they were up made on set.
This has informed Onduku Akpabibibol (2008:2) to argue that the various commission set up so far in addressing the problem of the Niger Delta have not been able to interpreter accurately the feed back from the local, rather, they work more to their individual satisfaction. And the comrades, the business sector….” By necessity must adopt such strategies that would be reflected in the lives of the people for which it is set, while institution perspectives produced and norms may not necessarily reflect human lives per see, they inevitably mould overall behaviour of the target society (Ibid).
Conclusively, I want to note that the Niger Delta crisis is a local area and must be solve locally, the in story of the Niger Delta area, is a very useful instrument in tackling the Niger Delta crisis. The people of the Niger Delta have long been law abiding people and this was made possible of Niger Delta to put in place a new constitution compact that will transform them, the local people into agents of development tp provide for their need themselves.
Through government of the federal republic of Nigeria had established the ministry of Niger Delta good, the federal government should allow the indigenes of this region to lead and fully involved in policy making and execution of the decision. There should be a substantial amount of money set aside for this ministry to prose into assignment of.
(1) Educational in the region. Education should be made free at all levels for the indigents of the region. This will enable the indigenes of the region to move freely to other parts of the country.
(2) Road: Goods roads should be constructed in the area. This will enable the indigenes of the region to move freely to other parts of the country.
(3) Portable water: Portbale and drinkable water should be made available to the indigenes of Niger Delta.
(4) Job opportunity: Government of Nigeria should make it compulsory for the oil and Gas industries in the Niger Delta is given a certain percentage employment opportunity is the Niger Delta. This will occupy them and keep them away from being idle to employment saga does not excite illiterate. This illiterate members of the regions should be employed to sweep clear ground and serve as supporting staff in the offices.
(5) There should be trades like tailoring, bombing bricklaying etc. during the period of learning, government should try as much as possible to give them token amount of money or monthly basis and at the end of their apprenticeship government should provide them with equipment and material to work with free of charge. This is a sort of encouragement that will divert their attention from engaging in militancy.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PUBERTY IN GIRLS
(1) Breast Development
(2) Development of public hair
(3) Matured Reproductive Organs
(4) Menstruation and fertility
(5) Body shape, Body Odoured and Acne.
Your sister just reached the age of puberty. Explain the importance of this to her and advise her on how to take proper care of herself.
TOPIC: PREPARATION FOR MOTHER/ EARLYHOOD
Preparing for motherhood can be very exciting especially if the expectant mother is having her first baby. The thought of bringing a new life belonging to her into the world, makes her feel anxious but happy. It will be of great help to her if she has the knowledge of what is going on inside her and how to take proper care of herself and the unborn baby. This will lessen her anxiety and enable her to enjoy good health. She will realize that motherhood is natural function. She should be taught her responsibilities as a mother to be.
At the end of this unit, you should be able to:
(i) Recognise the signs and symptoms of pregnancy.
(ii) Enumerate the needs of an expectant mother.
(iii) State the importance of pre and post natal care.
When a woman who usually has regular menstruation misses a period, the most likely reason is that she is pregnant. There are other reasons for missing periods such as illness or even a shock.
Apart from missing the monthly period, there are other signs and symptoms which will show that.
Akogun, K, (2007) Beyond the Niger Delta Master Plan. Enugu; John Jacobs Publishers.
Andreski, S (1988) The Africa Predicament: A study the pathology of modernization; London Longman Publisher.
Ake, C. (2001) Democracy and Development in Africa, Ibadan; John Publisher.
Onduku, A (2008) Argue that the various Problem of the Niger Delta Crisis, Ibadan, Kraft Publisher.
Okonta (2008) A new constitutional arrangement restoring agency and autonomy. Oxford; Oxford University. Press.
Worpner P. (1996) Environmenal Activism and world civil Politics. New York, State University of New York Press.
Watts, M. (2002) Petrol Violence; Some thought on community Extraction and political: London. Longman Publisher.
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