USE OF PLANT MATERIAL DATURA METEL IN THE PROTECTION OF MAIZE FROM ATTACK AND DESTRUCTION BY SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS IN STORE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

MAIZE (ZEA MAYS)

Maize or corn is a cared crop that is grow widely throughout the world in a range of Agroecological environment. About 50 species exist and consist of different colors, textures, shape, and size white, yellow and red are the most common types.

The white and yellow varieties one preferred by most people depending on the region.

Maize was introduced into Africa in the 1500s and has since become one of African’s dominant food crops. Like many others regions, it is consumed as a vegetable although it is a gain crop.

Worldwide production of maize is 785 million metric tonnes with the largest producer, the united states, producing 42%, African produces 6.5% and the largest African producer is Nigeria with nearly 8 million tonnes followed by South Africa, Africa import 28% of the required maize from countries outside the content.

Worldwide consumption of maize is more than 116million metric tonnes with African consuming 30% and sub-saharan Africa 21%

However, Lesotto has the largest consumption per capital with 174ky? Per year-Eastern and Southern African uses 80% of its production as food, while Africa as a whole uses 95% compared to other world regions that use most of its maize as animal feed.

The grains are rich I  vitamins, A,C,and E, carbohydrates and essential minerals, and contains 9% protein.

IMPORTANCE

Maize is the most important cercal crop in sub-sahara African and an important stage food for more than 1.2 billion people in sub-sahara African and Latin America. All the parts of the crop can be used for food and non food products. In industrialized countries, maize is largely used as livestock feed and as a raw materials for industrial products.

Maize accounts for 30-50% low-income household expenditures in Eastern and Southern Africa. For this reason, there is the need to protect the grains in the storage from destruction by insect pest, otherwise great losses of the valuable crop will be recorded annually. Destruction by Sitophilus  Zaeamais a maize weevil, have been found to be very devastating in the storage.

Olowo and Dawodu (2008) Sitophilus zeamays can be controlled by using plant materials, such as Eucalyptus  Citriodora, Citrus Paradisi, Citrus Sinenesis and Citrus allnantifiolia

Nwai  (2007) had mixed dried lantana leaves with maize, his sample had stayed for over a year without getting attacked by Sitophilus Zeamais

Records on the control of Sitophilus Zeamais. Using Datura Metal has not been documented. For this reason this project investigated aspects of the insecticidal action of Datura Metal which may be important in the formulation for use against Sitophilus Zeamais infestation of maize.

The Specific Objectives were

  1. To determine the effect of powder of Datura Metal on Mortality of adults of Sitophilus Zeamais
  2. To compare the susceptibility of differently aged adults of Sitophilus Zeamais to Datura Metal


CHAPTER FOUR

LITERATURE REVIEW

USE OF PLANT MATERIALS TO CONTROL SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS

Ogunwolu and Idowu (1994) oil was extracted from lime which was collected from Dora Farm house Dakari local government area. Findings from these studies indicated that oils from parts were effective in protecting stored product from insect infestation.

As such the use of lime peal oil has demonstrated a potent activity against the maize weevil, indicating that the plant oil may have some properties which can be useful in shout listing the oil as an alternative source of botanical pesticide.

Similar powder from citrus sinensis leaves, peels were obtained and tested for the potential in protecting maize grain during storage. The powder was food to be effective in killing the Adult weevil (Adeire 2001)

Adedire and Ajayi (1996) reported the effect of four plant powder including Azadirachta Indica, Atstonia boove, Garnna Kola Morinya Oleifera on the mortality, of adults and emergence of maize weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais)

Oni and Ueke (2008) Essential oil from sweet basil (Ocimum Basilium), hoby, basil (Ocimum Americanum) hairy basil (Ocimum Tenui Florum), lime (Citrus Oulrantifolia), Kaffir lime (Citrus) hystrize) and cloue (Eugenia Caryophilus). Based on the effective control of the maize weevil by the oil extracted from herba plants such oil extracts could be useful in storing agricultural product.

Olowo and Dawodu (2008) Sitophilus Zeamays can be controlled by using plant materials, such as Eucalyptus Citrodora, Citrus Paradisi, Citrus Sinensis and Citrus auarntifiolia.

Nwai (2007) had mixed dried hantana leaves with stored maize, his sample had stayed for over a year without getting attacked by Sitophilus Zeamais

Similar powder from chilli pepper fruit were obtained and tested for the potential in protecting maize grain during storage. The powder was found to be effective in killing the adult weevil (2008).

Shakari (2008) Unripe peeled and dried lime was grounded into powder using pestle and mortar. The result indicated that lime peel powder is effective in the protection of maize against maize weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais)

Adedire (2004) Sitophilus Zeamais can be controlled by using plant materials, such as A. Indica, M. Lanceolata and C. Citratus powder.

Lime is traditionally used in many part of northern Nigerian as an insecticide to prevent insects from their harm, by burning the peel and then its smoke prevent insects (Kabirn2008).

The use of plant extracts in the control of store products insect is an ancient practice (Burkholder, 19, 1981).

Adedire and Ajayi, 1996. Essential oils of plant origin are high hipophilic and therefore have the ability to penetrate the cuticle of insects.

Asawalam and Emosariye (1990) using essential oil from vernonia anygdalina and ashes were also found to be toxic against maize weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais)

Sathyaseclan 2008 Sitophilus Zeamais can be controlled by using plant materials, such as callabruchus and citrus paradise

Ukeh (2008) Sitophilus Zeamais can be controlled by using Essential oils from herbs and spices have reported to have Funigant and other activities on maize weevil.

Alkofahi etal (1989) reported that coconut oil when applied to maize protected it against lesser grain borer.

Oni (1993) Sitophilus Zeamais can be controlled by using lime oil which is very effected in maize weevil adult.

Oni (1993) The use of lime peel oil has demonstrated a potent activity against the maize weevil, indicating that the plant oil may have some properties which can be useful in short listing the oil as an alternative source of botanical pesticide.

Similarly moringa Oleifera powder can be use to control Sitophilus Zeamais which is very effective on weevil mortality after 75hr of exposure Ogunliyi (1996)

Francis K (2007) Sitophilus Zeamais can be controlled by using leaf ashes of cypresses arizonica, Eucalyptus grandis, Ocimum gratissimum and root ash of vetiueria zizanioides.

Jouda Madiouni and Mohamed Bouaziz (2012) Sitophilus Zeamais can be controlled by using plant materials such as, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus astringens, Eucalyptus leucoxyglon, Eucalyptus lehmaninil and Eucalyptus rudis.

  1. Pajandran and V Srirarpinin (2008) Sitophilus Zeamais can be controlled by using plant materials such as, Apiaceae, Lamiceae, and Myrtaceae.

Apprah (1989) Sitophilus Zeamais can be controlled by using plant materials such as Meem (Azadirochta Indica), and copra indicus. \

Adedire (1996) reported the effect of three plant oil including Citrus (Citrus Limon) Garlic (Allium Satiuum) and Pondia (menthe spicata) on the mortality of adult and emergence of maize weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais)

Mostafa (1993) reported the effect of two plant powder including Mentha Longifolia and Thymus vulgaris on the mortality of adult and emergence of maize weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais)

Zafranski (1993) Sitophilus Zeamais can be controlled by using plant materials such as Quassia sp, T. granarium vernonia spp.

Jocab and Sheila (1993) reported the effect of two plant powder Chromolaera odorata and calotropic procera on the mortality of adult and emergence on the mortality of adult and Emergence of maize weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais)

  1. trucatus Rochmuth (1997) reported the effect of four plant powder including Ricinus Coccinea Gaura coccinea, carrea Cliaturn and castillga tenuiflora on the mortality of adult and emergence of maize weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais)

Araga (1996) reported the effect of some plant powders including Guazuma tomentosa and Acorcus calamus on the mortality of adult and emergence of maize weevil Sitophilus Zeamais

Risha (1993) Sitophilus Zeamais can be controlled by using plant materials, such as Cydista acquinnoctials, Ageratum congzoides

Philipines Vellador (1994) Sit0philus Zeamais can be controlled by using plant materials such as Gliricidia Sepium

Odeyemi (1993) reported the effect of three plant powder including Mondora teniuifolia, lippia adoensis and cymbogon citrates on the mortality of adult and emergence of maize weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais)

Bongladesh Buiyah and Quiniones (1990) reports the effect of plant powder uagundi (Vitex negundo) on the mortality of adult and emergence of maize weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais)

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Beetle Culture

The Sitophilus Zeamais used for this study was derived from a colony originating from infested maize seeds collected from a local market in Ikere Ekiti, Nigeria. The colony has been maintained in Kliner jars in cooled in cubator at 30 + 50, 50 + 5% R.H. for more than 20 generations, using sokoto while maize is substrate. Two hundred unsexed adults were introduced into Kliner jar containing about 500g of white sokoto maize seeds.

Maize Seeds

The variety of maize seeds used was sokoto white maize, which was harvested during 2011 late season  cropping in the teaching and research farm of the college of Education Ikere-Ekiti. Clean seeds with no visible sign of beetle presence, or damage sport or exist hole were used.

These seeds were stored in the chest freezer for two weeks before use for the bioassay, this is to ensure disinfection  of the seeds.

Preparation of fruit and leaf powders of Datura Metal fresh ripe fruit a d leaves of Datura Metal was obtained from the forestry research institute of Nigeria (FRIN) Ibadan Oyo State. The Datura species used were identified in the herbarium section of the institute. The fruits and leaves were oven  dried to constant weight at a temperature of 40oc. Therefore, the dried fruits and leaves were separated ground in Hp Kitchen mill. Each of the plant part milled were kept in a separated plastic container with tightly fitted lid and placed in cooled incubator at 0oc until used.

Effect of fruits and leaf powders of Datura Metal on mortality of adult beetle

Fruits powders of Datura Metal were tested at 0.5g of material per 20g of seed in separate plastic Petri dishes (8.5cm diameter).

20 newly emerged adult Sitophilus Zeamais of which (10 pairs) male and female were covered firmly. The control was left unformulated. Adult mortality was monitored in 12, 24, 36, 48, 96, hours. Each treatment including the control was replicated five times. The ability of the insecticides to kill actively ovipositing couples that are three, four and five days old respectively was similarly determined.

Each application rate contained equal amount of powder from either fruits leaves.

 

 

Experimental Design and Analysis

All test utilized a randomized complete block design with five replicates per treatment. Data collected and calculated were subjected to analysis of various (ANOVA). Treatment means which dred significantly at p = 0.05 were separated using least significant difference (LSD) statistics.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

SUMMARY

The purpose of this study is the use of plant material Datura Metal in the protection of maize from attack and destruction by Sitophilus Zeamais in store.

Record on the control of Sitophilus Zeamais using Datura Metal has not been documented. For this reason, this project investigated aspects of the insecticidal action of Datural Metal which may be important in the formulation for use against Sitophilus Zeamais infestation of zea maize.

The Specific Objectives were

  1. To determine the effect of powder of Datural Metal on mortality of adults of Sitophilus Zeamais
  2. To compare the susceptibility of differently age adults of Sitophilus Zeamais Metal

CONCLUSION

The use of Datural Metal powder has demonstrated a potent activity against the maize weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais) indicating that the plant powders have some properties which can be useful in short listing the powder as an alternative source of botanical pesticide

RECOMMENDATION

It us recommend that further studies be conducted to determine the effect of powder of Datural Metal on oviposition and adult emergence of Sitophilus Zeamais from untested maize seeds and to evaluate the bioactive compound present in the plant powder.

 

 

REFERENCES

Adedire, C.O and L. Lajide, 1999. Toxicity and oviposition deterency of some plant extracts on maize storage.

Adedire, C.O and O. Akinneye, 2004 Biological activity of tree marigold, Tithronia diversifolia, on maize

Adedire C.O. and T. Ajayi 1996. Assessment of insecticidal properties of some plant extracts and grains protectant against the maize weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais).

Adedire C.O. 2002. Use of nutmeg myristica fragrans (Houtle) powder and oil for the control of maize.

Mikolajczak and B.A scott 1989, search for new pesticide from higher plants.

Arennilewa, S.T. 2002 Assessment of the insecticidal

Akinkorolere, R.O., C.O. Adedire and Odeyemi 2006 laboratory evaluation of the oxic properties of forest.

Lale M.E.S 1995. An overview of the use of plant product in the tropic postharvest news and information 6. 75N.

Shiaaga E. kostigokogsti, Elilberg J. and Sokrahan 1997 plant oils as fumigants and contact insecticides for the control of stored-product insects journal of stored product repellant vol 33. N 1 pg 7-15

Adedire, C.O. 2001 Biology, Ecology and control of insect pest of stored Cereal Grain in pest of stored cereals and pulse in Nigeria Biology, Ecology and control. Dave Collin publications Nigeria.                 

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