The rehabilitation of the retired teachers and other civil servants in the state and most especially in Akure North local government Area is giving a concern to our society today.

The mass retirement/retrenched by our government today seem to be creating more problems than it could solve.

Most of the retire/retrenched workers are confused while some others who never had any prio plans see themselves as been dejected by the society.

This study was carried out in Ekiti state with particular references to Akure North local government area.

This purposes of this study are:

To identify the causes of the mass retirement retrenchment by the government.

To identify measures by the government to stop or reduce the mass retirement/retrenchment of workers in our state.

To identify measures of rehabilitating these retired/retrenched workers.

Guideline for the study was made available through a review of literature.  The population was made up of the retired/retrenched teachers and other civil servants in the locality.

A total of one hundred and twenty (120) retired/retrenched workers selected from the locality constituted the sample of the study.

Questionnaires were used to collect the required data fro the study.  The questionnaires were administered to the retired workers.

The data were tabulated and worked out in percentages.

From the responses to the questions, it was discovered that most of the retired workers had not made a proper planning before their retirements.

Also, most of their retirement benefits and gratuities are not paid as and when due.

Based on the findings therefore, the researcher recommend that:

Before any retirement/retrench is made, due notice should be given to those concerned to allow room for proper planning.

Workers should know that the working places or positions are not for them alone and should prepare in advance for retirement or any eventuality.

The government should pay the workers the gratuities and other benefit as and when due.



Title page







Background of the study

Statement of the problem

Purpose of the study

Significance of the study

Scope of the study

Limitation or problem of the study

Definition of the terms


Review of literature

The meaning and preparation for retirement

Adequate income substantially

Adequate accommodation

Absorbing interest

Opportunities for rehabilitation

Setting for a job of your linking

Opportunities for professionals

Opening a business of your own

Problems associated with retirement/retrenchment


Methodology and design

Area of study

Sample population

Sampling techniques

Instrument of used

Data collection

Method of presentation and interpretation of data

Validation of instrument



Analysis of data


Research question

Table i

Table ii

Table iii

Table iv

Table v

Table vi

Table vii

Table viii

This major findings



Discussion of findings










Background of the study

Even up to the middle of last century, most people believed that plants, animals and men were all created at the beginning of the world as described in Holy Book of Genesis; and the date was traced back to 4004 B.C. By the 19th century.  Facts were discovered which suggested a different time scale.

Meanwhile, it is not the intention of the researcher to argue with any of the various school of thought on the origin of man on earth.

It is only fair to assume that perhaps it is impossible to say precisely when man first lived on the plant called earth.

One outstanding characteristic in geologists/Archeologists search for the date of man’s first existence on earth is that of evidence on man’s activity way back at about 600,000 B.C. In order for man to maintain himself, he had to make tools with which to hunt animals; one may recall to the story of the early man.

In this study, we will therefore prime into the concept of work and the worker’s retirement.

When one looks at work as a concept, he may blame the creator for condemning Adam and Eve and thus humanity to go to work.  This gives the erroneous impression that work was bad.  But referring to the early chapter of genesis, God established work as a blessed part of human life.  A look at the third chapter after the fall into sin and rebellion by man that work now becomes toil; out of the sweat of thy brows thou shall eat bread.  Work was not really the creator’s punishment rather toil.

Also, the frustration that comes from meaningless work was not plan rather, we may add that because of industrialization the idea of work’s inherent virtue may have seemed temporality implausible to generations who blaboured in the mines and mills.

For the purpose of this research project, we shall centre our discussions on one aspect of the working class and to limit it the more, we shall restrict ourselves to the government employee both the civil and public servant.

A seemingly trival question one might be compelled to ask is what is retirement and when does a civils servant actually retires? A commonly presumed meaning of retirement is the act of giving up one’s work, position or business as a result of age, disability, infirmity, gross official misconduct etc. There are two major forms of retirement – the voluntary and the compulsory retirements.

In voluntary retirements, the civil servant decides early enough (before attaining the age of 60) to give up his job may be due to his desire to go into private sector, politics, or even to be conferred a traditional title form his community.

This was more pronounced during the last civilian Regime even in the recently concluded councillorship and chairmanship elections which was Barrister onyenacheya of Mbaitoli local government area as chairman and his colleagues to their respective seats.

Compulsory retirement is one what “sees off” a civil or public servant on an attainment of the age of 60 (note that the Obasanjo regime purported a rise in the nation’s life expectancy and pushed up the official compulsory retirement age), it may also come as a result of gross official misconduct as was witnessed during the 1975 civil servant purge.  The Murtala and Obasanjo administrations were determined to give the nation a new lease of life.

It was evidently known that the public service under Gowon was Rncedeep in malpractices as the administration it advised and served.  This was why general murtala undertook the purge of public servant and about 10,000 lost their jobs either by retirement or total dismissal on various reasons sometimes without benefits.

Also during one of the last civilian regimes in the country (1975 – 1983), Nigeria witnessed a tremendous rise in the number of her employees.  The number of civil servant both in the federal civil service, states and local governments rose tremendously.  The numerical strength of teachers both in primary and secondary schools also rose to a double.  There was the proliferation of schools due to the universal primary Education scheme which came into being in 1976.

The government offered automatic employment in the teaching field to the graduands of these schools whether they all passed their examinations or not.

The tremendous rise in the number of employees brought additional burden to the government, the number of staff on their pay roll rose astronomically without a corresponding increase on the economic resources.  The effect was that the government was spending more money on the personal emoluments and wages; coupled with the fact that the national minimum monthly wage rose from N60.00 to N125.00 which invariably became an extra burden on the government.  Today, the Uman Musa Yar Adua administration has continued to make series of increases on the minimum wage though this varies from one state to another and from one ministry to another.  This has brought no standard uniform in the salary structure of the various organs of the government and ministries.

It was not long before the then government realized that is could no longer cope with the burden that salaries were owed in arrears.  It became the order of the day for government to owe teachers and civil servant salaries in arrears for upwards of four to six months and mine months here in Ekiti State and other states of the federation before the military took over power on the 31st of December, 1983.

Today, Nigeria like many other countries of the world and African continent in particular, is struggling to surpass the world wide economic recession.

Different regimes have used different measures at different times to solve this perennial problem.  General Obasanjo in his own regime introduced austerity measures’ or economic measures such as reduction in basic traveling allowance (B.T.A.) banon importation of luxiry goods.  Cut down on government spending increase in prices of fuel, which has become the order of the day.  These economic measures were introduced to help conserve foreign reserve which was diminishing at a very fast rate.

Through the instrument known as the economic “stabilization Act” enacted by the federal parliament in 1987, the Shagari administration introduced stringent economic measures when it became evident that foreign reserve was almost exhausted.

Since the inception of the second republic and the advance of the military, there have been series of economic measures taken by the administration and all are aimed at improving the already battered economy of the nation.  For example, they have reduced the number of ministers, commissioners, closed down or emerged some schools, colleges, ministries etc.

Here in Ekiti State, the present governor Segun Oni nearly served for almost one year without commissioners.  This is in order to conserve the little resources of the state.  There is also ban on the importation of foreign goods freely by the public.

To crown it all is the wave of mass retirement/retrenchment since the military took over power.  This does not mean that the present government introduced the retirement of workers in the public service.  Perhaps, what is different in the new dispensation is that it has been pursued meticulously and vigorously resulting in an increase in the number of retired personnels.

In the recent past, the government has decided to use certificate and nature of work as criteria for the retirement/retrenchment of workers.  The teachers who were referred commonly as C.T.R’s (Certified Trained Referred Teachers) were retrenched on the ground that they did not possess the complete certificate.  Non tutorial staff which included labourers, cooks and stewards, laboratory attendants, security men, carpenters and measons were laid off on the group that their works were non essential and in order to keep with the government’s new policy on trimming the civil/public service so as to be in line with the economic realities of the nation and state in particular.

The private sector is not left out in this exercise.  The work force in factories and industries was initially reduced due to the decline in their output and in recent times, most factories have been closed down due to recurrent problems of raw materials procurement.  The result is that all the workers in these companies have been laid off while those still in production have streamed their work force to almost half because of their rate of production which is lesser than their capacities.

In this study however, the writer is concerned with the problems of retired civil and public servants and is investigating into how they will be rehabilitated, what they would like to do; what they are now doing and the problems they are confronting, with particular reference to Akure North local government Area of Ondo State of Nigeria.

Statement of Problems

The national purge of 1975 under taken by General Murtala Mohammed spread across the nation like wild.  This saw the removal from office of civil servants numbering about 8,000 or more.  These people were compulsorily retired from service as a result of gross official misconduct, age limitation, years of service, and/or declining productivity; since then up to data, the exercise has been a continuous one as it manifests in the succeeding regimes.  Presently, the military Administration in the country is taking its own turn in retiring civil servants and teachers compulsorily.  All the states of the federation and the federal government is not left out in this exercise.  Teachers and public servants numbering in thousands have do far been removed from office.  Here is Ondo State and more in Akure North local Government Area, the exercise have become a continuous one.  Some time in the past almost all the non tutorial staff of the states schools system were retrenched.

This compulsory retirement exercise is causing a lot of hues and cries among the affected staff in particular and the entire public in general.

Many people have formed divergent opinions about the way and manner the exercises have been undertaken and is still going on.  Those of them who were affected by the exercise, their families, friends, relations and the entire public are now using the exercise as the day’s topic for public discussions.

There have been series of debate in our television and radio houses on the issue.  Many scholars and personalities have talked and aired their views on the issue.

The researcher’s aim here is to investigate into or find out the area of rehabilitation available to these retired workers and the problems associated with this compulsory retirement exercise in Ondo State with particular reference to Akure North local Government Area.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to find out the following:

  • The number of people so far affected by the exercise and their feelings on the whole issue.
  • The category of staff affected by the retirement exercise in Akure North local Government Area.
  • The plan if any, the government has made or is making for their rehabilitation.
  • What vocations/trade they now do or would want to do for their livelihood and the maintenance of their families.




Scope of the study

The researcher is out to investigate into the availability of opportunities necessary for effective rehabilitation of retired workers.

The study is limited to retired workers who were formerly in the employment of government establishments and parastatals in Akure North local government area.

It would have been desirable to extend the study to other towns and states but due to financial handicaps and time factors, the study is limited to the geographical scope of the work.

Significance of the study

The result of findings of the study will be of dual purpose.  It will be of benefit to the affected retired teacher and civil servant on one hand and the government and workers still in their employment on the other side.

When the researcher is successfully concluded, the findings and recommendations will help to suggest ways of making retired workers to able to resettle themselves on other vocations/trades.

It will also help to make civil servant to accept retirement from service in good faith and not to regard it as a punitive measure against them, the result will help to suggest to the government serving teacher and other workers on the need for proper planning and preparation for a happy resettlement on retirement.

In all, it will serve as a base for further researches on the issue and other related topics.

Limitations or Problems of the Study

The following problems were encountered by the researcher.

  • The time available for the study was too short and as a result, the researcher could not give the study the indept investigation it deserves.
  • Lack finance was the main problem
  • There was the problem of tracing the retired workers as they were not located at a particular place.
  • Some of the respondents were not willing to respond to the questionnaires.
  • The instrument for data collection were not pretested before administering them to the respondents.

Definition of Terms

  • P.E: Universal Primary Education.  An educational programme launched in 1976.
  • T.R: Certificate Trained Referred Teachers.  These are teachers who have finished their training but failed to pass all their subjects in the final examination.
  • T.A Basic Traveling Allowance.  This is the allowance in foreign exchange usually allowed travelers visiting overseas e.g. pilgrims.
  • Rehabilitation To resettle
  • Retirement Relinquishing one’s post or office.




In industrial society, retirement is a major event in the life of man and woman.  Just as entering the work force heralds the beginning of economic self sufficiency for most people and families, leaving the work is also a beginning to the start of a new and different life in which leisure rather than work becomes pre – eminent.  Retirement is now wide speading in Nigeria and its influence on the individual and the society is pervasive.  Therefore, it is surprising that retirement as a social event, an occurrence affecting both the individual and society, has had only limited attention in the sociological literature. (Maddex 1966). With few exceptions, an individual’s leaving work and its resultant effects on him, and those around him, have been considered as primarily economic rather than sociological problems (Streid and Thompson, 158). According to Ethel shannes in his view, “the word retirement has a variety of usages.  It is used in a number of different ways and each implies a specific meaning. “Retirement” is commonly used to describe an event or crisis period or a stage of life.  It may mean to withdraw, to go back, go away or to give up one’s position.  The exact meaning given to the term depends upon who is using it.  Whether he is an economist, a psychologist or sociologist, or a worker or employer.

The most rigorous definition is made by the economist.  Generally, when economists refer to a person as retired, they are of the opinion that he is either totally absent from the labour force or he works so few hours each week or so few hours each week or so few weeks during the year that he can no longer be considered part of the labour force.  Here, the term usage of the term “retirement” by workers and employers relates to that of the economist.

Sociologists and psychologists often add another dimension to their use of the term “retirement”.  In addition to retirement being an even, it is seen as a special kind of event, which heralds a critical period in the life span.  Take for instance, we speak of individuals experiencing “retirement” “shock.  “In this usage of the term” is seen as a crisis.  Uche, in his article in the Nigerian statesman on “Retirement”, (1984:9) asks the following questions: what is Retirement? Is there anything like retirement? Could retirement be linked to a ‘stage of life’ which people should retirement start? When should one start planning for it? “These and some other questions are being examined today in Nigeria.

To the average Nigeria, retirement connotes leaving the civil servants wither voluntarily or compulsorily as a result of inevitable circumstances.  Some retirements are welcomed while other are dreaded.

In the Nigerian society, retirement is hardly experienced in the private sector.

Privately engaged citizens such as traders, businessman, contractors, farmers and so on do no talk of retirement.  They invariably continue in their business until death.  One thing is very clear about retirement in Nigerian context.  It is evident that it brings to an abrupt and the disciplines and obligations of working life and therefore follows an important transition period requiring some measure of adaptation, and which for many people can bring about significant effects on their health or be a time of confusion, frustration, stress and social insecurity.  Today, this is more manifesting in the lives of the retired teachers and civil servants in Akure North local government area and Ondo State in general as most of them are leaving for the next world resulting from lack of payment of their pensions and gratuities.

In his book, How to enjoy your Retirement (1974:3) John sunshine looks at retirement as a new kind of job, one that requires adjustments as any other new job does, no matter how much experience you had in your own field.  You may have had a certain amount of choice in your career, but on this issue, you have no choice.  You must accept this new job.  And that means that you will have to adjust to it or lose the wonderful opportunity retirement offers.

According to Mavin B. Susman (1972), Retirement is a phenomena with multiple meanings.  It may be studied as a status or as a process, and it has many components. “Retirement” is a status which carries the connotation that the individual is still active in some life sector but not in all others.  The expression, “He is retired” means that the individual has a selected number of remaining roles and that those in the work sector of society are omitted.

Retirement is a demotion in the work system.  For most people, it means a sharp reduction in income less income may result in inability to meet behavioural expectations in a group or organization.

The outcome is a change in status.  Charles Taylor (1968) is of the same opinion when he considered “retirement” as an event precitating significant changes in behaviour or as a process parallding other on – going processes”

The changes on individuals as retired, we must know that the activities he is now engaged in are not defined in his society or work, at least for that particular person.

The nature of the activities on individual engaged in is not a useful distinction between work and non – work.  Neither is the payment of money or other remunerations for service a useful cross – cultural criterion for the worker in a subsistence economy may have no services to render beyond his own economic unit, nor a surplus of produce to trade or sell to others.

Similarly, productivity does not distinguish between work and no – work.  Much activity in complex society produces no goods or wealth.  A philanthropist may work hard in giving away to other members of his society goods or wealth he has previously accumulated.  The priest, the judge, the politician, the teacher and the like, none of these is involved directly in the production of goods or wealth, but certainly all of them are defined as working member of their respective societies.

In his article life – cycle perspective: public policies for later life in book retirement as inevitable phase of avoiding disruption through death (Blaumer, 1966).

It is believed that the society avoids dependence upon those with high death-risk.  This is the something as saying that the society disengage from the old.

Retirement may also have the legitimate formation of protecting society against the errors of older people with mental and physical disabilities.  Due to socio – economic forces, and deficiencies in scientific knowledge, retirement arbitrarily determined by age has been the prevailing practice.  But however other criteria are being used such as number of years service, certificate nature of work and indiscipline.

In his article on Retirement, Dorgu (1985:7) linked retirement to the worker as a nightmare.  It is a psychological and social castration, a demoralizing blow to his personal pride and above all the beginning of insecurity to his family.

The Planning and Preparation for Retirement

Planning can be defined as “any detailed scheme, programme, or method worked out before hand for the accomplishment of an objective”.

Obviously, the retirement plan of a man who is fifty years old must be more detailed and more specific than the plan of a man who is only thirty five.

The U.S. Newo and World Report Inc. page 24 stated that “there are some basic considerations about retirement planning that should apply, however, no matter how the mechanic are tackled”.

The chances are that any one who thinks about his future at all is already thinking perhaps hardly consciously of retirement.  Thinking is said to be the beginning of planning.

Every plan implies an established objective and acknowledge of the starting point.  The objective of retirement planning can be stated quite broadly; to provide some luxuries, and securing for a surviving spouse and other dependents.

The estimation of one’s assets and liabilities are the first ingredients of a retirement plan.  One should establish the difference between total assets owned and liabilities owed to other how and at retirement.

Planning for retirements are of two methods according to Askwith (1974:20). The methods are the advance planning which is a more welcomed one and the later planning which is looked at as a corrective measure.

No matter how far away one’s retirement may be, whether is ten, twenty or more years from now, it is even better to start now drawing the dream plans, specifying in details the life you would want to lead when you retire, your routine, your activities, your pleasures, the ambitions you want to realize for yourself and your family.  You can then spell out what you do now to make this dream plans come true, including approximately when each preliminary step should be taken.

These mean that one should in other words prepare a calendar of the things to be done, between today and your retirement data.  If one fulfils the entries of the calendar, it will how become his avocation during the years leading up to one’s retirement.

Ude (1984:9) in his write up about retirement plan was of the view that one would be healthy and happy if he planned and prepared for his retirement.  He viewed that following as being necessary for one to planning his happy retirement.  Good physical and emotional health which demand a disciplined way of life and is influenced by the pattern of one’s employment, regular medical check – up, exercise to keep fit and sensible healthy food habit etc. The age of retirement is a good time to take a critical look at what one has been eating or drinking and perhaps make a few changes for the better where necessary.

Adequate Income Substantially Above Subsiscience Level

In the few past times, significant improvement have taken place in the income of the retired worker.  But judged against the rising cost of living, the even demanding extended family obligations and the fact that many people in the retiring age are still training their children, many of those retiring are constantly forced with inadequate income generally below subsistence level.  The situation is worsened by the fact that payment of basic gratuity and pension right are unduly delayed for reason of the other.

Adequate Accommodation

A modest self – contained accommodation easily adaptable to one’s immediate and future needs is a basic need for happy retirement period.

In Nigeria here, the tradition and pattern is that the retired returns back to his native home.  It is therefore mandatory that one should not wait for retirement before planning to build a home of his taste.

Absorbing Interests

Retirement can mean opening a new chapter in a full and native life.  It can also mean “allowing life to pass by”.  After being tied to the clock.  Because of disciplines and obligations of a working life, one can still have time to do thing that one really enjoys.  In our society Nigeria these range from voluntary/social engagements to revenue yielding activities particularly things one would have fitted to do, but could not because of some reasons.  The choices is one’s and opportunities are many.

Opportunities for Rehabilitation

It is factual that for many who are retired, there is the need for an income – producing job.  One’s list of expected annual expenditures may add up to a sum larger than one’s expected income.  If that is true, one may feel the need for extra income to enable him to live the kind of retirement life he will fully enjoy.

The suggestions listed below will enable one to rehabilitate oneself.  It is worth knowing that the need for employment may not be only financial.  There are other vital benefits that flow from engaging in a regular paying job or activity.

For one thing, it means that a value has been placed on one’s service, inspite of the prevailing opinion that retirement means the end of your money – making capacity for example, one may benefit a great deal, physically and mentally, by having a job that obliges one to keep regular hours, get up on times eat regularly or when the need arise etc.

Also, a job will provide companionship and contact with people outside one’s family and intimate friends.

Finally, a job or enterprise that interests you fully will save you from the problem so many retired workers must contend with.

Setting for a Job of Your Linking

How does one go abut finding a job or an employment that will be interesting, keep him busy and happy, and yield an appreciable income? Finding a job depends on one’s state of mind.  It will not be easy if you belong to the group who are of the view that no employer will take a man who is about 50 years of age.  Some of the suggestions that follow require you to hire yourself to do a job, so you had better believe in your own capabilities.

Based on reliabilities and experience, the elderly man and women are sometimes most preferred should you want to sell yourself.

Having the faith in your abilities, your first step is to taken an inventory of yourself, put down on paper, in one column, a list of the things you have done, the experience you have had which you could use to advantage in new employment.  In the second column, put down what you would like to do – the kind of work or enterprise you would undertake with spirit and enthusiasm.  Make no pre – judgment as to the possibility of your attaining such employment, list every job that you would be happy to accept if it were offered to you.  Then select those jobs in the second column that anyone would agree you are qualified for, on the basic of the experience listed in your first column underscore these enterprises, for these are the ones you will set your sights on.

Aswth (1974:26) – let us assume to be specific that one of the dream jobs you have listed is “consultance on management problems to companies” your experience column records the fact that you had outstanding success in your business career in dealing with difficult management problems.

You draw up a list of serval companies large and small in your own area or in a nearly cities, and draft a letter to them.  Offering your services as a consultant at a modest fee, on the strength of your long experience.  As a matter of fact, this course of action has actually worked and worked as expected, for instance, where a retired executive who tried the above method and found so many firms on the united states of America that he decided to hire other retired workers, friends and neighbours, qualified by their experience to offer companies a wide range of management advice.  He further stated that the result was not only a larger income for the retired executive, but the pleasure of providing needed employment for other retired people.

The same course can be followed to create independent and profitable employment in other lines of work.  Accountants, engineers, mechanics, and construction workers can all find a second career.

If you have had experience as a mechanic, carpenter or a construction worker – or even if you have merely done a variety of do – it – yourself chores around your home, you can fix up a basement room with a few adequate tools and advertise that you are ready to serve your neighbours.  You will be pleasantly surprised at how quickly they will be respond, knowing that you are trustworthy and dependable and have the accumulated know – how to do the job.  Before long, you will be hiring another hand to help you take care of your growing business.

Opportunities for Professionals

The principles mentioned above applies if your own career has been in a profession other than business.  If you are a retired teacher for instance there are many opportunities open to you.  You can write a text book based on you area of subject specialization, write for magazineslor you can even be re – engaged in private lessons to help private pupils or candidates pass their examinations.  Retired teacher can form partnerships to organize and open up nearby schools which are presently not in the hands of good qualified teachers.

They can be engaged in adult education course in their communities or any one nearby to them.  There might also be an opening for retired teachers in public or private library where a library science degree might not be a requirement for all professions.

Retired teachers and civil servants have very good opportunities of re – engaging themselves into politics of the country.  More so, where certain posts demand certain levels of qualificates as the requisite.

Lawyers, doctors, and other professionals (in contrast to company executives) can continue to function as long as they want or are able to.  This is because they can set up their own private sector in their towns or communities.



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