AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS POOR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BUSINESS STUDIES
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
The differential scholastic achievement of students in Nigeria has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to educators, government and parents. This is so because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country. All over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria (Adebule, 2004). Parents and government are in total agreement that their huge investment on education is not yielding the desired dividend. Teachers also complain of students’ low performance at both internal and external examination. The annual releases of Senior Secondary Certificate Examination results (SSCE) conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC) justified the problematic nature and generalization of poor secondary school students’ performance in different school subjects Poor academic performance according to Aremu (2003) is a performance that is adjudged by the examinee/testee and some other significant as falling below an expected standard. Poor academic performance has been observed in school subjects especially mathematics and English language among secondary school students (Adesemowo, 2005). Aremu (2000) stresses that academic failure is not only frustrating to the students and the parents, its effects are equally grave on the society in terms of dearth of manpower in all spheres of the economy and politics. Education at secondary school level is supposed to be the bedrock and the foundation towards higher knowledge in tertiary institutions. It is an investment as well as an instrument that can be used to achieve a more rapid economic, social, political, technological, scientific and cultural development in the country. The National Policy on Education (2004) stipulated that secondary education is an instrument for national development that fosters the worth and development of the individual for further education and development, general development of the society and equality of educational opportunities to all Nigerian children, irrespective of any real or marginal disabilities.
The role of secondary education is to lay the foundation for further education and if a good foundation is laid at this level, there are likely to be no problem at subsequent levels. However, different people at different times have passed the blame of poor performance in secondary school to students because of their low retention, parental factors, association with wrong peers, low achievement, low retention, low achievement motivation and the likes (Aremu & Sokan, 2003; Aremu & Oluwole 2001; Aremu, 2000).
Morakinyo (2003) believe that the falling level of academic achievement is attributable to teacher’s non-use of verbal reinforcement strategy. Others found out that the attitude of some teachers to their job is reflected in their poor attendance to lessons, lateness to school, unsavory comments about student’s performance that could damage their ego, poor method of teaching and the likes affect pupils’ academic performance.
The academic performance of secondary school students in the West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) has taken a dramatic decline in recent times. This poor performance cuts across all subjects including Economics. There is no gainsaying that the purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning such that the students will be able to achieve high academic performance in examinations. For teachers of Economics, it is important that they understand and appreciate the determinants of their students’ performance in the subject. This knowledge will help the teachers to organize the teaching and learning process such that the students will achieve high performance in Economics. The fact remains that there can be no excellent academic performance without effective teaching and learning. It has been established among Psychologists that a number of factors determine the ability of the students. Some of these factors include; the learning environment, the competence of the teacher, motivation, the interest of the students to mention but a few.
Numerous studies have analyzed the factors behind the performance of students. Identifying the variables that influence the academic performance of students at school is of great importance for two reasons. On one hand, it is an essential tool for the public authorities in charge of definition of optimal and efficient education policies. On the other hand, this kind of analysis can help the educational institutions to improve the quality of their programmes (Awa, 2003) cited in Issah (2009).
Statement of the Problem
The benefits of studying business study cannot be over emphasized, as such, when students fail or perform poorly in business study in the examination; they lose the opportunity to fully enjoy these benefits. The question therefore is what are the factors affecting students performance in Business Studies? Is the fault entirely that of teachers or students or both of them? Is it that students of today are non-achievers because they have low intelligent quotient and a good neutral mechanism to be able to act purposefully, think rationally and deal effectively with academic tasks? Or is it because teachers are no longer putting in much commitment as before? Or is it in teachers’ method of teaching and interaction with pupils? Or is the poor performance of students caused by parents’ neglect, separation and poverty? The present study therefore sought to find out the causes of poor student performance in business studies in junior secondary schools in Oye local government area of Ekiti state.
Purpose of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to find out factors affect students poor performance in business study in some selected junior secondary schools in oye local government area of Ekiti state.
The specific objective is to;
- Determine the relationship between teacher commitment to teaching and work habit and the performance of student in business studes
- Find out if teacher qualification and teaching environment affect the performance of students in business studies?
- Investigate if availability and uses of teaching and learning materials have effect on performance of students in business studies
- Find out the factors affecting students poor performance in business studies in Oye local government area.
This study thus attempts to find answers to the under mentioned research questions and find out where the problem lies:
- Is there any relationship between teacher commitment to teaching and work habit and the performance of student in business studes
- Is there any relationship between teacher qualification and teaching environment and the performance of students in business studies?
- Is there any relationship between availability and uses of teaching and learning materials and the performance of students in business studies
- What are the major factors affecting students poor performance in business studies in Oye local government area.
The following null hypothesis will be tested at 0.05 level of significant
- There is no significant relationship between teacher commitment to teaching and work habit and the performance of student in business studes
- there is no significant relationship between teacher qualification and teaching environment and the performance of students in business studies
- There is no significant relationship between availability and uses of teaching and learning materials and the performance of students in business studies
- Scope of the Study
This study is limited in scope to the factors affecting low performance of secondary school student in Business studies in Oye Local Government in Ekiti-State.
The finding of this study will focus on the factors affecting low performance in business studies in Junior secondary school in Oye Local Government in Ekiti-State. Two selected secondary schools and 25 student each from the selected secondary schools will be used for the study.
Significance of the study
Although, the new national policy on education in Nigeria emphasized on business education and other skill subject, business studies at secondary school is not effectively implemented.
It is hoped that the finding of this study will make education authorities to give attention to business education programme. Also the findings and recommendation will provide useful information for the causes of low performance in business studies by business education teachers and principals of secondary schools improving plan for implementing business education programme.
In addition, it will serve as a useful guide to guidance, counselors, parents, teachers and principals in advising the students on choice of future career in the field of business.
Operational Definition of Terms
v Teacher commitment: Teacher commitment is the who may be seen as the pivot of the transmission of knowledge can be effective if he or she learns and applies all of the teaching principles and method that make a teacher as professional and competent enough to knowledge in any given field of discipline.
v Availability of teaching aids: Teaching aids are objects which helps teachers to make lesson clearer and fully expressed to students. They also transmit information, ideas and roles to student in such a way that will modify their attitudes habit good example of teaching aids.
v Parental Involvement in school: Ability to give quality education to students to produce encouraging academic performance largely depends on parents, teachers, other educational stakeholders.
v Teacher Qualification: These are teachers who have acquired advance education and special training in teaching. This includes holders of bachelor degree higher national diploma.
v Motivation: Teachers should be able to know individual difference, interest and abilities in orders to known how to motivate the learners.
v Vocational education is any form of education whose primary purpose is to prepare people for employment in recognized occupation.
v Business studies: Is the study of the vocational activities working to be sense of the student on how to be self independent.
v Commercial education: It is a discipline that taught in secondary schools.
The subjects are business studies, typewriting, shorthand, commerce and accounts.
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