AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF PACKAGING IN MODERN MARKETING (A CASE STUDY OF ISO GLASS, IBADAN, OYO STATE)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
List of tables
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Assumptions of the study
1.6 Research questions
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
2.2 Summary of Literature Review
3.1 Design of the study
3.2 Area of the study
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample of the study
3.5 Instrument for data collection
3.6 Validation of the study
3.7 Distribution and retrieval of instrument.
3.8 Method of data analysis.
4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data presentation and interpretations
4.2 Discussion of findings
SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of the findings.
5.4 Limitation of the study
5.5 Suggestion for further research.
This research work analysis of the role of packaging in modern marketing was carried out at Ibadan at Oyo State, with particular reference to Iso glass plc. The work was done to examine the role of packaging in the company in the process of the work the research divided the work into the introduction of the problem and some term defined, in chapter two research revealed books which centered on packaging, chapter three is about the three methodology of the research which shows the areas of the study, population and the sample as well as the methods of data collection and its analysis. In chapter four the data collected were analyzed and interpreted in order to arrive at the finding. Conclusion were made and research gave his recommendation. The chapter also contained the limitation of the study and suggestion was made for further research.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Packaging plays an important role in modern marketing. Products going to the market have to be well packaged.
Packaging can play a minor role (example hardware items) or a major role (example cosmetics) many materials have called packaging the fifth “P” along with product, price, place and promotion. Marketers treat packaging as an element of product strategy.
According to Santon, packaging is the general group of activities in product planning that involves designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product.
Packaging is also defined as that aspect of product planning in which a firm researches, designs and produces a container or wrapper which is capable of protecting the product, facilitating use of that product and promoting the product.
Depending on the nature of the products, packaging is highly emphasized by most product managers due to its marketing implications. One product managers described packaging as a “silent salesman of an organization in a retail store.
Packaging can be defined as the science art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage roles as a medium in the marketing mix in promotion campaign, as a pricing criterion, in defining the character of a new product as a shelter trends and as instrument to create brand. Identity and shelf impact in all product groups. Packaging as a key industrial activity has contributed largely to the present need to be day increase in the standard of living. Packaging of product need to be dynamic and persuading.
The impression of a consumer about the product will inwardly decide in him, if he is to make purchase or not. Packaging of consumer goods needs intelligent leadership and management support in order to attain the company’s goals and objectives. Packaging on its own has been taken as a principal advertising medium.
It is also used as a means of informing and persuading people to buy the merchandise, it is a silent salesman of a company and its potentials and problem needs to be fully understood. If its to be properly.
Iso Glass Plc in one of such organizations that engages in packaging. Its was incorporated about 30 years ago as the first indigenes manufacturer of windscreen.
Iso glass is located in Block E, Plot 17 Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ring Road, P.O Box 833, Ibadan Oyo State. It is a manufacturing company that produces glass. The firm has total Staff, Strength of above 200 including the management team, their product and services include manufacturing of decorative, security, automotive and architectural glasses, shower enclosure and glass cleaning services. Iso Glass Company has customer from various part of the country and so are competitors
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Iso Glass is one of the manufacturing companies in Nigeria. They started production as far back as 1990’s. The company produces glasses and bottles but of recent, the company has been experiencing a gradual decrease in its market share and consumer patronage of the country’s product. Some of the problems which other glass industries are exposed as well as Iso glass Plc include poor packaging. Some organization argues that packaging has nothing to do with the rate turnover of a company. But is it really true? This is what this study hope to unravel and by extension consider the following :
- Packaging and communication of product features to the consumer.
- Poor packaging and the quality of the product.
- Poor packaging and the rate of turnover.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
The study is carried out by the researcher to achieve the following objectives.
- To determine the best way glass manufacturers can segment their market.
- To determine the level of perception and consumer attitude towards packaging.
- To find out the role of packaging to the firm or firms.
- To highlight some factors responsible for efficient packaging.
- To determine the role good product packaging plays in modern marketing.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is very important because at the end.
- Information obtain will assist glass manufacturer in planning their packaging.
- Information obtained will also guide students in carrying out research on the same topic in future.
- The result of the research will also help firms solve problem associated with packaging.
- Other research institute will equally benefit from the result of this research when concluded.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following research question will give rise to the study.
- Are consumers familiar with the term “packaging “
- Are consumer’s familiar with the term packaging and how effective is packaging in the marketing of glassware?
- Does good product packaging lead to increase in sales?
- Does good packaging get the attention of the target market?
- Does good packaging influence the consumers buying decision?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study will be limited to the role of packaging in modern marketing.
Attention will also be directed to the consumers and distributors of glass manufacturers especially within Ibadan (Oyo State) to enable the researchers gather information on the effectiveness of the company.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Packaging: Packaging is material used to wrap or protect a product.
Product: Product is anything capable of satisfying consumer wants or needs. It could be inform of physical object service or idea.
Brand: A type of product made by a company under a particular name.
Customer: A person buying goods and services from a shop.
Marketing: Marketing is the social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they want through creation, offering and exchanging products or value with others.
Manufacturers: Are those who make use of raw material to produce those products needed by the consumers they are known as the producers.
Competition: They are people or organization that
This chapter will entail what scholars in the field has seen and written in the past. This is going to make us to gain better understanding of how, and what packaging is all about especially in Iso Glass Plc and the strategies that the research problems are treated. The material will be treated under the following headings. The nature of packaging, here entails and also enables a researcher become better able to identify the producers, the methodology including the instrument that will help the researcher to work effectively and satisfactory.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.
According to Briston and Nell (1972) “packaging is the means of ensuring the safe delivery of a product to the ultimate consumer in a sound condition, at the minimum overall cost and as the art of science and technology of preparing goods for transport and sales.
According to Stanton (1981) “packaging is defined here as the general group of activities in product planning and producing the container or wrapper for a product.
Walter (1969:229) in studying human behavior stated that “motivation refers generally to the inner striving conditions of the individual which are described as drivers want urges motives, needs and the like.
IMPORTANCE OF PACKAGING
Packaging has really been growing in its importance at times, it becomes very difficult to determine whether greater emphasis should be put on the protective functions.
Packaging is the most important especially in the case of consumer convenience goods. Packaging ranges from the complex. For example narrow paper bag that holds a simple package, its importance in todays competitive economic is obvious. When many products are available that has the same or highly similar functions the package may make the difference success and failure. Packaging gives a consumer clues about product, it attract the consumers, it also serves several useful purpose like, help to product and how to use it.
CRITICISMS OF PACKAGING
From Okafor A.I (1998) there has been a continued public outcry against packaging because of the degree of environmental pollution caused by throw away package furthermore, the same customers who are requesting that products to be adequately are also the same people crying out loudly against packaging according to Okafor A.I, its briefly summaries thus:
- That excessive packaging only goes deplete our natural resources. These critics failed to understand that empties are now being recycled.
- The critics pin point also at the very expensive material used for the packaging of beer and cosmetics products, they argue that, this is going to be responsible for about half the production cost of these products. These critics failed to understand that packaging go to drastically reduce the likely hood of the product being damaged while in transit.
- The same plastic material for product packaging tends to be hazardous. The weakness in their argument is that they also tend to forget that argument band the use of such dangerous materials finally, those packaging tend to be deceptive, those producers go to un-necessary have some unreasonable space within the container thus making customer believe that the package if filled to the brim.
FUNCTION OF PACKAGING
What vital functions to a product does packaging offer?
According to Ferrell (1978:50) said that effective packaging involves more than simple putting products in containers. It serves as also] protective in it’s function.
My recent research also revealed that packaging does not apply or only go to protect product content, it provide some promotional functions to product.
We may now look at the functions of packaging from its promotional and perspective. Sometimes the protective and promotional function of packaging come in conflict. Apart from the protective functions, they are:
- It enables prospects to differentiate one product from the other thus preventing the mistake of a wrong choice of brand.
- Product advertisement which are done on most product packaging go to pre-sell the product.
- Self service retailing thieving presently would not have possible without packaging that sell themselves.
- Packaging goods stacked on the shelves at various retail serves as invisible sales person.
Johnson and Wood (1977) in their discussion this particular area said that for a package to have performed a protective function it must:
- Enclose the materials both to protect them and protect other items from them.
- Restrain them from undesired movement within the container is in transit.
- Separate the content to use of the corrugated fiber board partition used in the shipment of glassware.
- Cushion the content from outside vibration and shocks.
- Support the weight of identical container that will be stacked above it as part of the building block concept.
PACKAGING AND RECYCLING
According to David Schwartz (1973) said that majority of consumer have limited trash disposal facilities even city and sanitation department are over stressed with copying with the enormous wastage of packaged used. The interest of firms in the recycling of empties was motivated as a result of continued public outcry against various empties that littered our environment, one can see littering of most of our streets, roads with beer cans. These can also provide breathing and living places for mosquitoes. Abandoned empties did not end with only can and bottles, we also notice how worn-out tiers and many other bottles were littering our environment. Bottles of Coca Cola and many other soft drinks need to be praised for their effort towards recycling of their empties to take place with bear product in Nigeria. Other firms are advised to join our pollution because the much more lower pollutants discharged when compared with mining and refining of the virgin ones returns of empties do not only go to reduce drastically other raw materials that are required for the final making of the particular package in question. Finally, when empties are regularly recycled, it lead to much cleaner and healthier environment.
THE PACKAGING MUST CREATE A DESIRE FOR THE PROJECT.
It must be designed in such a way that it will create real desire on the potential consumer to purchase the product. the role it plays is that it creates uniqueness on the product the desire for a product can be created by ending the customer in recalling the product advertising which he has been exposed.
2.2 SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW
Packaging is the development of container and graphic design for a product. Part of the product after that communicates with prospective buyers while protecting the product.
It carries product branding descriptions, shape and colors. Its major objectives are:
- To introduce new product
- To attract new product
- To increase sales off-seasons
- To induce present customer to buy more and
- To increase the inventions of business buyers.
In chapter two, we emphasize that packaging is very important in today’s competitive economy, packaging gives the consumer clue about a product, it also helps to store a product. in this chapter also we discuss on the various criticism of packaging , also we discuss on to criticism of packaging , also we mention the functions of packaging, it plays a very vital role in modern marketing, we also find that packaging is protective, apart from the protective functions of packaging it also talks about packaging and recycling, finally we saw that package must create a desire for the product.
One of the roles of packaging is to create a desire that is unique on the product.
3.1 DESIGN OF THE STUDY
Methodology helps in formulating commodity rules and development of corresponding method and techniques. The purpose of this chapter is to explain the steps and procedure adopted in the conduct of the study. It will be reviewed under the following heading, the design of the study, sample and sampling technique, method of data collection and method of data analysis. The design could be seen as a frame work or plan that is used as a guide in collecting and analyzing the data for a study for a study. It is proof that allows the researcher to draw interference concerning casual relating among the variables under investigation. In this study, series of information are gotten from human and not from products. Basically there are two types of research design. The experiment and quasi. Experimental design otherwise called a “survey” will be adopted as it deals with the assessment of the sales promotional strategies in the role of packaging in the modern marketing in IBADAN, Oyo State.
3.2 AREA OF THE STUDY
The research work is meant to cover Iso Glass Plc Ibadan, Oyo State. this means that the research will take place in Ibadan, Oyo state.
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
The population of the study is in two fold, the first fold involves the managers, the employees of ISO glass Plc. the second involves the customers. The population is made up of men, women and the customers. The population, the researcher intends to study is 100 people.
3.4 SAMPLE OF THE STUDY
The sample and sampling techniques is the determination of the sample size can be calculated with the aid of the yaroyamen’s formula below.
Where N = Sample size = 80
E = Level of significance = 0.05
N = Population size = 100
n = 80
while N=100 as population size is derived after Ibadan being the area of the study was divided into four zones, namely town zone, Ohanuku, Ariaria, business Center and Ibadan respectively
|Pop zones||Pop Size|
|Ariaria Business Center||28|
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
To gather the necessary data and information, the researcher used research questionnaires
Questionnaire: questions which are intended to assist in answering the posed in this research were developed and administered to respondents. To achieve this, research questions were drawn from textbooks, journals and post projects materials.
INTERVIEW: A carefully designed structure oral questionnaire were posed to the respondents in order to elicit information that one significant to the research work.
- VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT
Generally , it is necessary to validate the instrument in other to fortify it to measure what it is designed to measure. However the Company manager and my Supervisor having examined the instrument under use ( personal interview and Questionnaire method) deemed it fit for validation since the instrument are not foreign based ones.
3.7 DISTRIBUTION AND RETRIEVAL OF INSTRUMENT.
80 questionnaires were used for this research work and personally distributed to the respondents and were collected back personally by the researcher to ensure the completeness of the materials.
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
For the research analysis of data some mathematical models were adopted. The data formula fo the use of percetage:
Where F =
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter is devoted to presentation analysis and discussion of data collection for the study. It also shows the finding of the study: provide the answers to the research questions in line with the objectives of the research. Data is presented and analyzed for the purpose of this research.
In this chapter, data collected for the purpose of answering research question posed the study were presented and analyzed. The findings were presented according to the research questions. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to the eighty respondents and they were all completely filled and returned.
4.1 DATA PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
Analysis according to sex
Source: Field Survey 2016
The table above deals with sex of the respondents. The researcher met 45 male workers and 35 female workers which represents 56.25% and 43.75% respectively. The information above reveals that there are more male workers than female workers.
Analysis according to age
Source: Field Survey 2016
The information from the table shows that majority of the workers range age bracket of 41=50 years while the majority falls with the age bracket of 51 and above.
Analysis According to work experience
|NO OF YEARS||RESPONDENTS||PERCENTAGE (%)|
Source: Field Survey 2016
It can be seen from the table above that the number of employees that have stayed up to 20 years in the company are more in number and shows that they will give pertinent answer information because of their experience
Are consumers familiar with the term packaging?
Source: Field Survey
From the above, 60 respondents 75% of the population agreed that consumers are familiar with the term packaging , while 20 respondents representing 25% said No. that is to say that consumers are familiar with the term “packaging”
How effective is package in the marketing of glassware?
Source: Field Survey 2016 6.225%
From the table above it indicates that 60 respondents representing 75% said that packaging is very effective in the marketing of glass ware, 15 respondents representing 18.75% are of the option that packaging is not effective in the marketing of glassware while 5 respondents representing 25% had no idea.
Does good packaging lead to increase in sale?
Source: Field Survey 2016
From the ]above table, 70 respondents 87.5% agreed that good packaging lead to increase in sales while 10 respondents representing 12.5% disagreed and said that it does not lead to increase in sale.
Does good product packaging get the attention of the target market?
Source: Field Survey 2016
From the above table, 60 respondents representing 75% agreed that good packaging get the attention of the target market, 15 respondents representing 18.75% disagreed and said that it does not get the attention of the target market while 5 respondents representing 6.25% said no idea.
Does good packaging influence the consumers buying decision?
Source: Field Survey 2016
From the above table, 70 respondents representing 87.5% agreed that good packaging influences the consumers buying decision, while 10 respondents representing 12.5% disagreed and said that it does not influence the consumers buying decision.
4.2 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDING
Based on the analysis of data above, the researcher was able to make the following findings. The consumers are very familiar with the term packaging. This was released in the research question 1, where majority of the respondents with 75% agreed to this.
From research question 2, packaging is very effective in the marketing of glassware with the majority of the respondents agreed to that.
Question 3 revealed that good product packaging lead to increase because 87.5% of the respondents agreed to that.
From question 4, it shows that good product packaging influences the consumers buying decision with 87.5% of the respondents supporting the idea.
The researcher hereby suggest that organization cannot survive without a good packaging. The organization should however, improve project packaging. However based on the above discussion, the need for the role of packaging in modern marketing cannot be overemphasized, hence, the researcher concludes that packaging in modern marketing can be used by the firm under study and other manufacturing industries to increase their sales.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDDATION
5.1 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS
And attempt has been made in the following pages to create some awareness on the reader on what the role of packaging in the modern marketing intends to do. These generalized opinion and findings on the role of marketing in modern marketing are as follows.
Packaging increase a company sales volume it also increase and enhance the chance of purchasing the company’s product.
Packaging influence the consumer’s buying decision. It was noted that when a particular product is in constant demand, packaging helps the consumer to make the right decision from other competitor’s product.
From the above research work, it could be observed that by effective implementation and review of the packaging program problems affecting the packaging function will
disappear. from the research study it is also observed that packaging provides some protective functions like protecting the product content from the outside vibrations there is no doubt that packaging has a very huge impact on product sales.
From the findings above, the researcher has made the following conclusion.
- Consumers are very familiar with the term packaging
- Packaging is very effective in the marketing of glass ware.
- Good product packaging leads to increase in sales.
- Good product packaging gets the attention of target market.
- Good packaging influence buying decision.
Packaging is a part of marketing process. This is because company’s produce, distribution, pricing and promotion may be affected by packaging. However ISO glass Plc as well as other organizations should continue to realize that it cost a lot of money to reach many people so in the interest of the economy. Advertising medium of informing and packaging is an advertising medium of information and persuading people to buy merchandise.
Finally, packaging as one of the promotional tool in marketing should be a must for consumers product company. Most especially to Iso Glass Plc
5.4 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the process of conducting this research, the researcher encouraged some difficulties that tried to hinder the success of the work. Among them are:
- Financial constraint
- Time factor
- Distance between area of the study and the researcher’s school.
- The problem of combining the research work with other academic works.
- Inability of some respondents to return their questionnaires.
5.5 SUGGESTIION FOR FUTHER RESEARCH
- A study of this nature should be out in details on other organization in relation to packaging
- There is need to conduct research on the role of packaging in glass industries.
- Enough time should be given to enable the researcher to come out with objective report.
Briston K and Nell J (1972) Packaging Management 1st Edition Core Press, Great Britain.
Kotler .P. (1980) Principles of Marketing 7th Edition Prentice Hall int.Inc London.
Stanton W.J (1981) Fundamentals’ of Marketing 6th Edition mc GrawHill International Book Co. Japan.
Bush A. and Houston R (1985) Marketing 1st Edition Richard D.IrwinInc. Illinois
Okafor A. (1998) Principles of Marketing (the Atomicv Approach) 1st Edition-Onwubiko Press LTD Onitsha, Anambra State.
Johnson L and Wood K. (1977) Management Marketing 1st Edition.
Pride S. and Ferrell M. (1978) Marketing 7th Edition London ModinoPress Ltd.
David Schawartz (1973) Principles of Marketing 1st Edition
Department of Marketing
Federal Polytechnic, Oko,
The Managing Director,
ISO Glass Plc,
REQUEST FOR VALIDATE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
I am an ND final year student of the above institutions, am currently carrying out a research project on the role of packaging in modern marketing (a case study of ISO Glass Plc, Ibadan Delta State).
I will be grateful if you give me all the necessary information and answers required to make the project research a success.
The information given is purely for academic purpose and will be handled with strict confidence.
Thanks for your cooperation
Azike Cynthia Oluebube
SECTION A (PERSONAL DATA)
The questionnaires seek to know your opinion on the role of packaging in modern marketing.
Please tick (<) or fill the blank spaces as applied above
- Sex : male ( )
- Age: under 30 years ( )
- Marital Status (a) married ( ) (b) Single ( )
- Educational attainment:
- First School Leaving Certificate ( )
- SSCE ( )
- D ( )
- HND, BSC ( )
- Administrative Status:
- Manager/Assist, manager ( )
- Supervisor ( )
- Clerical staff ( )
- Others please specify ( )
SECTION B (NON PERSONAL DATA)
- Are you familiar with the term packaging?
Yes ( ) No ( )
- If the response to (6) above if “yes” have at anytime had packaging experience?
Yes ( ) No ( )
8.how effective is your package?
Very effective ( )
Average ( )
Not effective ( )
- To what extent do you use packaging in the distribution of your product?
Selective distribution ( )
Exclusively ( )
Extensively ( )
- What type of packaging material do you find more promotional in the packaging of your consumer goods?
Primary package ( )
Secondary ( )
- Can customer identify your product easily in the market?
Yes ( )
No ( )
- Is the cost at packaging very high
Yes ( )
No ( )
HOW TO ORDER FOR COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL
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