APPLICATION OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Technology has pervaded all spheres of human endeavor and organizations. With the internet, the whole world has now become a global village. Against this background, this study interrogates the application of MIS in human resource management in Enugu State Civil Service. However, the researcher adopted system theory as the theoretical framework. The reason for adopting this theory hinges on the fact that man lives in a world of continuing changes thus, technological tradition has not only bred the system analytic approach to planning, but also underlined the system dynamics for different phenomena. The internet complexity views them as inter-linked, interacted and integrated.
The findings reveal that Enugu State civil Service has not put in use management information system thereby crating a lot of gap in application in management information system in the civil Service system. Also the survey research design was adopted for this study because it deals with the practical application of already standardized theories available social sciences.
To adequately use this research work effectively, the research has made some recommendations on the way forward for improvement in service delivery particularly in Enugu State Civil service.
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE
Table of contents————————————————IX
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION————————–
1.1 Background of the study——————————-
1.2 Objectives of the study——————————–
1.3 Significance of the study—————————–
1.4 Scope and Limitations of the study——————
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY————————–
2.1 Literature Review———————————–
2.3 Theoretical Framework——————————–
2.5 Method of Data collection………………………
2.6 Validity and Reliability of Instrument………….
2.7 Population of the Study……………………….
2.8 Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER THREE: BACKGROUD INFORMATION ON THE CASE STUDY AND SUBJECT MATER—–
3.1 Background Information—————————-
3.2 The Role and function of the civil Service—-
3.3 Purpose of Management Information System—
CHAPTR FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data Presentations and Test of Hypotheses
4.2 The types of equipment used for data processing in the civil service
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, conclusion and recommendation —————-
This study arises from the new environment existing in our organization. The private and public sectors of our economy must be efficient in order to grow and survive. The efficiency of our economy depends on the strength of the nation’s workforce resources. Good a thing, the days of management and working by trial and error which was the practice some years ago has disappeared. Currently, an increasing attention is being focused on the role of employee’s development and training in social, political and economic development of the nation.
With the drive towards technological advancement in Nigeria, Management Information System is inevitable. For instance, the conversation to the use of electronics, telecommunications and computers have virtually made every industry to change their operations and methods which necessitate employees training and development towards the use of modern information management systems to enable them cope with the environmental changes.
Management Information System though accepted as a vital part of any administrative function is still carried out in ad hoc. According to Hicks and Gullet (1981: 562) Management Information Systems, especially the parts of them that are computerized, are increasingly being studied and designed. They seek to provide management with timely, appropriate and understandable information necessary to control the circumstance surrounding an issue and knowledge of the alternatives available. The more pertinent and timely the information, the better the resulting decision. An organization has no natural memory other than the memory of the individuals within it and since individuals come and go, administrators must develop extensive networks of reporting management information systems, to retain essential information over long period of time. Few firms have been successful in developing totally adequate information systems for decision-making uses. A number of reasons have been advanced for this lack of success, including inadequate efforts by top management, failure to make appropriate use of computer capabilities, and incorrect approaches to system designs which have emphasized efficient processing more than the importance of the Information. Fortunately, recent trends indicate that better information systems are being developed in many types of organizations for example, a law Enforcement agency uses a complex computerized system for gathering and communicating relevant information from ninety remote stations for use in decisions making. Also, sophisticated information systems have been developed by utility companies that generate electrical power at a verity of Locations. These systems provide “running” computations’ of cost at each producing pant, so that each unit of demand may be supplied, within certain Limits, from the least expensive source. The computations include such Factors as production and transportation costs. Sometimes an organization’s information system is seen as only the computerized portion of the total information flow. However, there are two Major parts that make up an organization’s information system: The formal Portion (of which computerized data can be a part) and the informal portion. Formal information flows through approved organization channels and is Subject to design and control by management. It includes performance Reports to higher management, requests for help from one department to another, and External communications, such as government reports on the state of the Economy. Also included are announcements by competitors of new product. Portions of this formalized information flow may be receive much of their information concerning competitors by reading newspapers and magazines and by talking to field sales managers on the telephone. On the other hand, information concerning finished goods inventory levels and shipping schedules may be computerized for greater efficiency in serving customers and at the same time keeping costs at a minimum. However, despite these arrays of facts concerning the benefits of Information and information technology, there has been a phenomenal Information technology, Information and extension in Nigeria economy and the public service. The reason for this information explosion could be traced to growth in the Size and diversity of modern organizations. The Nigeria public service Employ a large work force, maintain diverse department range and as a Result adopt a divisional structure. This definitely means that these departments need more information to coordinate their various activities and Functions. Another factor responsible for the information explosion in Nigeria is the instability and uncertainty in Nigeria policy environment. the 1980’s and 1990’s have a large doze of environmental variability upon the Nigeria business and public service. The economy has been under poorly coordinated and implemented adjustments. The legal and political factors, socio-cultural factor, have also experienced a state of flux. Explaining this scenario, Okonkwo (1996:64)” wrote that most policies fail in Nigeria because of lack of continuity in Government which is as a result of instability”. It is a well known fact that political instability is very high. In most cases, these changes in the political sector, come and go at short intervals.
These changes in the above mentioned factors subsequently, and inevitably, leads to the gathering and collecting of new set of data so that the organization can review plans and introduce an adaptive action that corresponds with the new reality.Certainly, this has placed the Nigerian manager at the vortex of information, thus complicating his responsibilities. He has to update his skill in planning and strategic management in order to handle the multitude of internal and external pressure from the environment. Specifically, he needs an effective mechanism that can manipulate the ever-present problem of data processing and information support for management decision making. Empirically, it has been proved by Wiener Norbert (1967: 8-9) that every human organization depends on information for its continual existence. Therefore, every organization, no matter the size, has to secure data for its operation. Sometimes, the data are generated internally within the organization, at other times; they are secured from element outside the organization. These data are needed for documentation purposes, and also for further decisions. Some scholars like (Davise 1974:24, Kennevan 1970, Iloka 1999) have often stressed the order and the characteristic of a good information system. For instance, Iloka (1999) has indicated that the system should be scientific and organized to provide past, present and projections of relevant and timely information relating to internal and external intelligence on the desk of the managers to aid decision making. It must support the planning, control and operational function of the organization by furnishing uniform information in the proper time frame to assist the decision maker.
In the true sense, the information system in an organization consists of all activities involving the creation, storage and manipulation of information. It also includes the related methods, management and application of information in the organization. Basically, it consist of such devices as files and filling cabinets, calculators, adding machine, words processors, computer, notice boards telephones, System analyst, programmers and data processing clerks. In addition, it includes the
13organization’s structural framework such as reporting system and communication network and patterns. From the foregoing, it is obvious that not all information systems are computer based, and they need not be. This argument is aptly captured by Dorton and Giacolletto (1992:50) who wrote that “just as information is mistaken as computerized information, so information technology is often thought as primary computers”. While the computer may not be a compulsory element of the information system, the scope of operation of some large organizations makes the computer inevitable in order to support their data processing and information support needs. The computer is the greatest force that has accelerated the rate of development of information technology and information syss.
In sum, the globalization process coupled with organizational complexity and environmental variability has created information explosion in Nigeria. The phenomenon has become endemic in Nigeria because of the peculiar dynamics of underdevelopment prevalent in Africa. In an attempt to address this, much attention has been on how to solve or eliminate the information problem of civil service. Organizational researchers have not put in sufficient effort to investigate and isolate how the manager in the public service can handle the myriad pressure from his operational milieu. This study therefore, interrogates the level of development of information system in the Nigeria public service with special emphasis on human resource management in Enugu State Civil Service .
Chukwuemeka (1988:111) posited that effective public management is a key determinant of economic prosperity of any country. This is due to the pivotal role of the public service as engine of modernization and national development. Yet Chukwuemeka (1998:29) went ahead to note that “the Nigerian public service isbedeviled by apparent lethargy, procrastination and inefficiency”. Still commenting on the public service another scholar Eze (1998:168) from the human resource perspective is worried that “the major bulk of retrogressive human resource management practices in Nigeria occur mainly in the civil service. If both scholars (Chukwuemeka and Eze) have indicted the Nigeria public service for failing to live up to expectations, aptly one can ask. What is responsible for this negative performance by the public service in Nigeria?. The Udoji report of 1974 had earlier taken note of this problem and isolated a problem cause. The report said that the major constrain to Nigeria’s development is the lack of skilled and experienced men and women to carry out the task. Corroborating the finding of the Udoji report the third National Development plan, ( 1975- 1980) explained further by saying that the successful implementation of a development plan depends on not just on available of financial and other capital inputs, but more importantly on the adequacy of trained manpower in various occupation. Both the Udoji report and the third National Development plan seem to have implicated the human resources component for the operational failures and administrative ineptitude of the public service. To remedy or reverse this lapse the nation requires a cadre of dedicated civil servants who have current information and information management techniques as it relates to the management of human resource in the contemporary world. However, providing a scenario overview of the public service in Nigeria. Most civil servants in the public establishment who are supposed to set appropriate goals for their subordinate lack current knowledge. Ejiofor (1980:1) “noted that one of the major problems in the public service is the intractable problems of planning without facts”. That civil servants lacked current knowledge and is quite disturbing because according to former prime Minister of Britain Toney Blair “the knowledge-driver economy is the economy of future”.
In addition, some macro-organizational Scholars like ( Otti 1991 and Fubara 1985) have also pointed out the growing diversity of the Nigeria organizations; the growing culture of government policy discontinuity and the emergent turbulence in the general environment. To address this development, an effective system in an organization to acquire and manage information is necessary. This is because knowing how to put information to use has become critical to success and survival. Hopefully, the invention of the microchips and computerization has made information management more efficient and organized in this era of phenomenal information explosion. In fact, the technology is available to any organization and institutions that desires to upgrade its information database and information management systems.
Nevertheless, it is imperative to point out that computerization is not just a matter of technological innovations and developments. It should be seen as a process, which involves individuals, organization and society. Basically we have three classes of computer based systems. There is the Electronic Data Processing (EDP), the Decision Support Systems (DSS) which aid the decision making of management; and the information system which is the Human Resources Management Information System (HRMIS) which provides timely and accurate information on desk of the human resources manager. Finally, the civil service is the biggest employer of labour in Nigeria. In addition, the units that make up the public service are large with complex departmental structures and large deployment of human resources over time and space. Thus, these coupled with the fluid and uncertain operational terrain has
16subsequently made the information environment of human resources manager in the civil service amorphous. This called for the entrenchment or consolidation of a good and challenging tasks associated with human resources management in the present dispensation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The role of information in decision making cannot be overemphasized. Effective decision making demands accurate, timely and relevant information. According to Aminu (1986), information resource is one of the major issues and indices of organizational planning. Where the relevant information required for planning are not available at the appropriate time, there is bound to be poor planning, inappropriate decision making, poor priority of needs, defective programming or scheduling of activities. Hence, the Enugu State Civil Service system will not be efficient and effective without the application of Management Information System in operation. Poor management information system has been identified as a bottleneck in the successful management of Civil Service in Nigeria (NUC, 1987). The more complex an organization’s structure is, the greater the need for coordination within. However, central to the needed coordination is information. This view is buttressed by Murdick and Ross (1971), when they opined that: Information is absolutely essential to the survival of an organization. As organisations grow, the pressure of scale, complexity and an increased rate of change make adequate information processing capacity inevitable, if effective control, consequent upon coordination of individual activitiesis to be achieved. Thus, the information needed for effective decisionmaking in Enugu State cannot be provided from people’s often-deficient memories. Moreover, it is impossible to plan activities over a long period of time effectively without effective
information. Information is supposed to be created through the discipline of enquiry and research with peer moderation to ensure validity and societal influence. This study arises from the need for Enugu State Civil Service to update its levels of performance, through the efficient and effective application of management information system to human resource management.
The millennium bug, which was due to a defect in the computer’s dating system, generated panic waves throughout the world in 1999. Rightly, we are now in an era where the success or failure of any enterprise is hinged on the amount of information at its disposal and how properly this information is manipulated, stored and transmitted.
Thus, in the present dispensation, progressive organizations in both the public and private sectors have recognized the pivotal role information technology plays in their operational efficiency, and also, in the optimal deployment, management and utilization of their human resource. So far, no study known to the author has existed on the subject matter of this research in Enugu State Civil service. This study therefore, interrogates the application of management information system in human resources management in Enugu State Civil Service and it attempts to provide answer to the following research questions:
(1) To what degree is management information system being customize to fit in the current challenges in Enugu State civil service?
(2) Do Enugu State Civil Servants possess the necessary computer literate skills?
1.3 OBJECTIVES THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study is to interrogate the extent of application of management information system in Enugu State Civil Service. The specific objectives are as follows:
(a) To determine the extent to which the civil service in Enugu State has put in place a formalized Human Resource Management Information System.
(b) To ascertain the skill and proficiency level of the operators in relation to modern information management system.
© To determine the level of sophiscation of the information system in use.
(d) To identify the various aspects of human resource functions that is being supported by the human resource management information system in Enugu State civil service.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
The study has both theoretical and practical significance; theoretically, the study tries to contribute to the understanding of the impact of Management Information System and its application towards the attainment of a high level performance in Enugu State.
Secondly, considering the enormous challenges in the present age, this study will create an insight about the relevance of management information system to human resource in Enugu State Civil service and the need to encourage civil service to put it in use in its various ministries.
However, the study will of great importance to both the policy makers, Enugu State Civil service and the staff in general to the extent that it will motivate the workers and help the policy makers in organizational planning and operation and also seek practical ways of making sure that every staff participate in this training which will consequently be translated into higher level performance.
Finally, the work will be of colossal help to the general public, since this is the age of information system in the globe.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY.
This study represents a bold attempt to ascertain the level of use and sophistication of the computer based information system in the Enugu state Civil Service. To ensure an in-depth study, this work only covered six establishments in Enugu State Civil Service. These establishments or Ministries are the office of the Head of Service, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Information and Culture, Board of Internal Revenue, State Hospital Management Board and Civil Service Commission. Also, the population of study did not include all the staff in these Ministries. The respondents were drawn from the senior officers of these ministries because of their strategic role in human resource management.
More so, this research encountered some limitations in the course of its execution and completion. In the first instance, the researcher would have included the entire State Ministries in Enugu State but the time and resources available for the completion of the study limited the researcher to six Ministries or establishments. Thus, generalization of this research finding outside the confine of Enugu State may not be proper.
In addition, obtaining data and information from the respondents was not an easy task. This is due to the bureaucratic processes in Nigeria Civil Service. There was apathy from the respondents who saw the research effort as purely an academic enterprise that will not change the status quo. Finally, the dearth of literature on information systems in Nigeria was another huddle that confronted the researcher.
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