AN APPRAISAL OF THE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR THE ERADICATION OF ILLITERACY PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents v-vii
List of tables viii
- Introduction 1-2
- Background of study 2-4
- Statement of Problems 4-5
- Objectives of the study 5-6
- Hypothesis of the study 6
- Significance of the study 6-7
- Limitations of the study 7-8
- Delimitations of the study 8-9
- Introduction 11-18
- UBE and Information Technology 18-19
- Need for Basic Education 20-26
- UBE and effective Learning 26-28
- Requirements for the success of UBE 28-32
- UBE and Illiteracy Eradication 32-39
- Introduction 41
- Area of study/Population Size 41-42
- Data Collection 42-45
- Research Instruments 45
- Validation of research Instruments 45-46
- Data Analysis 46-48
- Introduction 50-51
- Analysis of Results 51-58
- Chi – Square Technique 58-65
- Discussions 65-72
- Conclusions 74-76
- Recommendations 76-79
APPENDIX : Essential Elements of Quality Education 81-86
LIST OF TABLE
Table I Awareness and support for UBE
Table II Facilities for the Implementation for UBE
Table III UBE and Standard of Education
Table IV Effect of UBE on Citizens
Table V Achievements of UBE objectives
Table VI UBE and numbers of Drop – outs
Table VII UBE and Improved learning conditions of Public schools
Table VIII UBE and Gender Education
Table IX UBE and Increased literacy level
Table X UBE and cure for Education Ills
Table XI Observed Frequency for Hypothesis I
Table XII Expected frequency
Table XIII Contingency Table
Table XIV Observed frequency for Hypothesis II
Table XV Expected Frequency
Table XVI Contingency Table
The purpose of this research study is to assess, the relevance, implementation strategies and impact of the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE) on the eradication of illiteracy in Nigeria.
The simple percentage rating, together with the chi-square technique was used in analyzing the data so gotten and testing the two hypotheses for the research study. The following findings were made from the study.
That with the proper education of the Nigerian population, Nigeria will be able to truly attain sustainable development, and this she can attain through the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE).
That the major objective of the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE), is to address the various problems that Nigeria’s educational system has encountered, over the year, with a view of correcting the anomie’s in the system, such as the ever decreasing standard of education.
Finally, to bring back trust and confidence in public schools, by totally over handing the education sector, through the provision of the various infrastructure and materials needed for this purpose.
The development of individuals and society is possible only through education. In this sense, education is the basic function of society, which constitutes the prime mover for national development. Hence to establish the goals of education, represent an attempt to define the goals and ideals of a nation. No one, therefore, can possibly doubt that education is the corner stone for national development and prosperity, something absolutely essential for progress in all areas of human endeavour.
In recent times, government has had to embark on several educational campaign programmes to bring to the bearest minimum the number of illiterates among its citizens. In carrying out this responsibility, the government can be said to be fulfilling its constitutional obligations as provided for by the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. This is spelt out in section (18) (3), which has the following objectives; “Government shall strive to eradicate illiteracy, and to this end, government shall when practicable provide”.
- Free, compulsory and universal primary education \
- Free, secondary education.
- Free university education and
- Free adult literacy education programmes.
In am attempt to achieving this goals, the government recently came up with the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE) as a way of witnessing spectacular growth and development in all aspects of education. With this education programmes. The government intends to attain qualitative and qualitative growth in the educational sector.
- Background of Study
The universalization of basic education is in keeping with the requirements of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (1999), the objectives of which are state in section 18 as follows government shall direct its policies in ensuring that there are equal and adequate opportunities at all levels.
Hence, the introduction of the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE) of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, which way formally launched on 30th September 1999 in Sokoto by president Olusegun Obasanjo, which aims at achieving the following specific objectives.
- Development in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion.
- The provision of free, Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school age.
- Reducing drastically the incidence of drop out from the formal school system (through improved relevance, quality and efficiency).
- Catering for the learning needs of younger persons, who for one reason or the other hand to interrupt their schooling through appropriate forms of complementary approaches to the provisions and promotion of basic education.
- Ensuring the acquisition of appropriate level of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communication and life skills, as well as the ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying solid foundation for life long learning.
Basic education, according to the Jomtien Declaration and frame work of Action on Education for all is not defined in terms of years of schooling, neither is it limited to formal schooling. It sees education in its broadest sense as of a close articulation of the formal and non – formal approaches to, and mechanism for the all – awakening and all round development of the human potential. The broad aim is to lay the foundation for life long learning, self – awareness, citizenship and life skills.
- Statement of the Problem
This study is primarily concerned with the high level of illiteracy in Nigeria as a developing country, which has in so many ways retarded the country’s growth in all ramifications. Statistics shows that about sixty (60) percent of Nigerians are illiterates i.e. do not have access to formal education, of which more than half of this number live in the rural areas. This has therefore, made it difficult for the government to harness to the fullest both its human and natural resources.
The government had therefore, in most cases, resort to depend on foreign expatriates to work in almost every facet of her economy so that it will be able to carry out certain functions that are very important to it.
- Objective of the study
The aim and objective of this study is to take a critical look at the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE) of the present administration with emphasis on the following objective;
- Infrastructure funding
- Monitoring and evaluation of the programme
- Teacher, their education, training, professional development and motivation.
- Data problem considering the fact that educational statistics is compounded by a number of factors, thus making it easy to extrapolate school – age population figures. This has therefore given rise to the phenomenon of “discordant data”.
The following hypotheses will be tested, using the chi square technique during the process of the study.
- That UBE will succeed, where others or earlier programmes have failed.
- That UBE is capable of reducing the incidence of drop out in the formal school system.
- The hypothesis should be capable of being proved.
- Hypothesis is derived from the body of knowledge or theory about a phenomenon requiring further verification through empirical analysis.
- Significance of the study
- This study is expected to add to existing knowledge of government educational mass literacy programmes.
- It will inform and enable educations, educational administrators and planners to come up with modifications, where necessary, that will bring about the realization of UBE objectives.
- It will crate awareness of the need for greater involvement of both parents and non – governmental organization of the need to make meaningful contributions to the education of both their words and the entire citizenry.
- It will inform subsequent government or administration of the need for continuation of educational policies such as UBE which the Olusegun Obasanjo led administration has started.
- Lastly, it will serves as a useful material for further studies in this area.
- Limitations of the study
- Due to the constraints imposed directly by finance and time, this study could not be carried out as exhaustively as the researcher would have liked to.
- Another factor is the unwillingness of officials to release what may be regarded as confidential information or inadequate data.
- Also added to this limitation is the deficiency of available related literature, given the fact that this area of study is new in the country.
- Though the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE) is nation – wide, this work does not cover the whole Country.
- Delimitation of the study
This study is based on the fact that the higher the literacy level of the citizens of a country, the more rapid the growth in terms of economic achievements it will attain. Education can be said to have direct bearing on national development. For Nigeria, therefore, to experience technological know how, it must be able to intensively address itself to educational needs of its ever – increasing, teeming and large population.
This study is equally concerned with the fact that the development of individuals and society is possible only through education. The researcher therefore is of the belief that to attain a high literacy level for its citizens the Nigerian government must make deliberate efforts to vigorously pursue its educational policies with a firm resolve and determination to over come what ever obstacle that may be experienced in the process of achieving its set objectives.
Geographically this study was carried out in Lagos State, despite the fact that the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE) is nation – wide.
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