Attitude and perception of secondary school students toward HIV/AIDS in Nigeria secondary schools
Background of the Study
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). As far as it is known in medical history, it had no precedent prior to 1981, when, it was discovered in the blood stream collected in 1959 (Jacoby 2010, Wikipedia 2013). The HIV makes an attachment on the white blood cells. Human Immunodeficiency Virus commonly referred to as HIV is used for maintaining immunity to diseases. On contacting HIV/AIDS, a person becomes vulnerable to disease due to the weakening of the body immunity. From my own perception Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is the most serious epidemics in the past few years and it is now affecting every part of the world and over 500,000 cases of HIV/AIDS had been reported to World Health Organization from 168 countries and territories around the world. No wonder it has been asserted that HIV/AIDS is the most dreaded disease in human history and that is while God forgives HIV/AIDS does not (Mwanwenda, 2011; Wikipedia, 2013).
AIDS is a disease of the human immune system precipitated by HIV. It interferes with the body’s system of resisting diseases and therefore, it is rendered rather feeble or powerless to infection. According to Summer (2009), HIV/AIDS is a condition that disempowers the body immune system from fighting diseases. Joint United Nations Programmme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), UNAIDS (2004) stated that today’s youth is the largest in history with nearly half of the global population being younger than 25 years of age. The Nigerian youths especially College students have a moderate awareness of the existence of HIV, though some in the past did not know of its existence in Nigeria. More than two decades into the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the vast majority of young people remain uninformed about sex and sexually transmitted infections (STIS). Although the majority had heard about AIDS, many do not know how HIV is spread and do not believe they are at risk (United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) /UNAIDS/WHO 2005). It was therefore concluded that there was need for comprehensive sexuality education programme which equip adolescents to have positive change in attitude towards HIV/AIDS transmission and how to protect themselves against the scourge of HIV/AIDS (AVERT 2009).
There was gross display of misconception on HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission and treatment methods. This means that the transmission of HIV/AIDS involves deliberate and efficient education and enlightment to influence the attitude of secondary school students toward HIV/AIDS transmission (Uwalak & Matsuo 2009). Therefore everyone should know that hope for stemming the tide of HIV/AIDS transmission depends largely on youth accurate attitudes towards HIV/AIDS transmission.
Abdulraheem & Fawole (2009) examined the impact of attitude and belief about AIDS on sexual behavior change among secondary school students in eastern Nigeria. They found a positive correlation existing between the knowledge of respondents with change of sexual behaviour attitude towards HIV/AIDS. Patients had a positive correlation with beliefs of susceptibility but a negative correlation with change in sexual behavior. This means that those who have liberal attitude towards AIDS patient have higher belief that would show less risky sexual behaviour. As HIV/AIDS advance, the more the body succumbs to infection, which are referred to as opportunistic disease that would not pose a threat to a non-HIV person. In many part of the country/World HIV/AIDS has become a pandemic. Large area are affected and the pandemic continue to spread (Kinbombo 2011).
The attitude of youth towards HIV/AIDS transmission was not applied to the sexual behavior practice, though a small number of them made transfer to such attitude and knowledge. The joint at the moment, there is no known cure or vaccine for AIDS. The HIV/AIDS diseases does not respect anybody including children as a result, prevention is better and cheaper than cure. The researcher noticed all over the world that HIV/AIDS is known but in case of Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti state, most students has negative attitude towards the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Hence, this explore the researcher to investigate on the attitude of secondary school students toward HIV/AIDS transmission among secondary school students in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti state.
Statement of the problem
The statistics on HIV/AIDS transmission in Nigeria is alarming, coupled with the fact that adults, adolescents and children are the factors that contribute to the spread of the disease lack of information, misconception, discrimination are some of the contributing factors.
Since the knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission now appears to be known, many observers are surprised that more people do not practice preventive behaviors. This could lead to an increase in transmission of HIV/AIDS which invariably becomes a threat to the society. In view of the above experience, it is therefore imperative to investigate the attitude and perception of secondary school students towards HIV/AIDS in nigeria in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study is to investigate the attitude and perception of secondary school students toward HIV/AIDS in Nigeria secondary schools using Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State as a case study.
Specifically, the study intends to:
- Determine the level of understanding of the secondary school students towards HIV/AIDS transmission.
- Determine the kind of attitude that secondary school students have towards the risk behaviour of HIV/AIDS.
- Measure the effect of school based sex education program on secondary school student’s attitudes toward HIV/AIDS transmission.
- find out if there is any difference between the attitude of male and female students towards HIV/AIDS transmission.
Significance of the study
This study will help to determine the incidence and perception of HIV/AIDS in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The study will help to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate due to HIV/AIDS. It will provide adequate knowledge to students about HIV/AIDS transmission.
This study will be beneficial to the parents, government and the students themselves because of adequate awareness that will be created as regards the consequence of indulging in sexual intercourse with opposite sex while at school or when one is not ready for marital life.
Scope of the study
The study will be delimited to the attitude and perception of secondary school students toward HIV/AIDS in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The study will cover the students in five (5) schools. The research work involves three trained assistants who will be students. The research instrument will be structured questionnaire. The research will involve the independent variable of attitude of secondary school students and dependent variable of HIV/AIDS transmission.
The research will provide answers to the following questions.
- What is the level of understanding of the secondary school students toward HIV/AIDS transmission in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
- Does school based sex education program have effect on secondary school student’s attitude toward HIV/AIDS transmission in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
- What is the attitude of secondary school students towards the risk behavior of HIV/AIDS transmission in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
- Is there any difference between the attitude of male and female students towards HIV/AIDS transmission in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
The following hypotheses have been formulated for the study;
- There is no significant level of understanding among secondary school students towards HIV/AIDS transmission.
- School based sex education program does not have any significant effect on secondary school student’s attitude toward HIV/AIDS transmission.
- there is no significant attitude of secondary school students toward risk behavior of HIV/AIDS transmission.
- There is no significant difference between the attitude of male and female students toward HIV/AIDS transmission.
Assumption of the study
The researcher assumes that the students in Ikere Local Government of Ekiti state have negative attitude towards the transmission of HIV/AIDS. The attitude of students is not applied to their sexual behavioral practice. This has really caused the increase of HIV/AIDS transmission and it has led to the spread of the disease in the society.
Definition of terms
Apathy: Showing no interest or concerned to the disease (HIV/AIDS)
Asymptomatic: This is a period where HIV will be spreading in the blood system of an individual who has contacted it before it finally manifest to AIDS.
Epidemic: This is a state of a particular disease, affecting or tending to affect many persons within a community, area or region at one time. For example, many people are dying of HIV/AIDS, a degree felt to be excessive.
Pandemic: It is a situation where a disease is occurring over a wide geographic area and affecting all exceptionally high proportion of the population. For example, an outbreak of HIV/AIDS is in all part of the world.
Symptomatology: The set of symptoms that are associated with a disease or that affect a patient.
AIDS: Acquire Immune-Deficiency Syndrome
ARC: AIDS Related Complex
CIA: Criminal Investigation Agency
CSW: Commercial Sex Workers
DNA: Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid
HIV: Human Immune Virus
IGA: Income Generating Activities
KABQ: Knowledge, Attitude and Belief Questionnaire
ICRW: International Center for Research on Women
MTCT: Mother – To – Child Transmission
RNA: Ribo Nucleic Acid
SIV: Simian Immune-deficiency Virus
STD: Sexual Transmitted Disease
STI: Sexual Transmitted Infection
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The review of literature of this study is discussed under the following sub-headings:
- Theoretical framework
- Review of related empirical studies includes:
- Concept of HIV/AIDS
- History of HIV/AIDS
- Global perception of HIV/AIDS transmission
- Risk behaviour of Students towards HIV/AIDS
- Students understanding regarding HIV/AIDS
- Students’ attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS
- Effect of sex education on students’ attitudes towards HIV/AIDS transmission
- Gender determinant difference in attitude as regard HIV/AIDS transmission
- Summary of literature Review
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