CHALLENGES OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION IN COLLEGE OF EDUCATION IKERE EKITI
Background of the Study
Entrepreneurship is the term used broadly in connection with the innovative and creative modern industrial and business leaders. It is often being defined by reference to the functions of an entrepreneur as the man who perceives business opportunities and taken advantage of the scarce resources to use them profitably. He alone bears the non-insurable risks in his enterprise, and it is he who directs the human and material resources in his business objective[ Akinbode, 2009]. Entrepreneurship is that critical element for effective mobilization of human and material resources of an organization for the attainment of its set goal.
In a similar vein, Wikipedia  defines entrepreneurship as the act of being an entrepreneur or one who undertakes innovations, finance and business acumen in an effort to transform innovations into economic goods. This may result to new organizations or may be part of revitalizing mature organizations in response to a perceived opportunity. The recent global financial crises, in addition to the prevalent economic woes of Nigeria, compelled the Federal Government to formally adopt Small and Medium Enterprises, SMEs, as the engine of the country’s economic recovery and re-engineering for national transformation.
The earlier World Bank, IMF, and other global institutions gospel that USA, Britain, Germany, Japan, Taiwan, France, the Asian Tigers, among other advanced countries of the world, have adopted SMEs as their building blocks of industrialization, made it a no choice situation for Nigeria [ Nwekeaku, 2010] Although the Nigeria’s Federal Government adopted SMEs as the building block of the country’s economy, the right entrepreneurs to realize the objective of setting up small and medium scale enterprises were not available despite the existence of millions army of unemployed youths, including university graduates.
The ubiquitous armies of unemployed university graduates, regrettably, do not have the requisite skills and experiences for entrepreneurship in the country. This unsavoury and startling revelation forced the Yaraduah administration, which included wealth creation as the number three item of its Seven-Point Agenda, to embrace entrepreneurship as a panacea. Education was noted as a vehicle for the entrepreneurial skills acquisition in Nigeria. Naturally, the Federal Government turned to the National Universities Commission, NUC, for solution. Consequently, the NUC directed the universities in the country to commence entrepreneurship education.
In an address at a conference on effective implementation of the Yaraduah Administration Seven-Point Agenda, Prof Julius A. Okojie, the Executive Secretary of the NUC, stated that the universities were encouraged to commence entrepreneurial education in order to equip their students with the skills that would make them useful to themselves and the country generally. In his words:
‘The Commission, through the Department of Student Support Services, is working out strategies of encouraging the universities to establish entrepreneurship studies, career advisory services and reduce crimes like examination malpractices, decadence in moral values, cultism and other social vices within the campus. Other areas of prime importance are of addressing graduate unemployment, poverty reduction and wealth creation through skills acquisition[ Okojie, 2009]
Related to the above is the directive of the Federal Government to all higher education institutions in the country to run entrepreneurship studies programme as a compulsory course for all students irrespective of their disciplines with effect from 2007/2008 academic session, and the Commission to coordinate and ensure compliance [ Okojie, 2009]
Pursuant to the above directive, the Federal Government set up a Presidential Committee on the implementation of entrepreneurship education with a broad based membership drawing from NUC, National Board for Technical Education, NBTE, Education Trust Fund, ETF, ILo, UNESCO and the Hamitle Consult, a consulting firm on entrepreneurship education in the country with the NUC as a coordinating agency.
Lack of entrepreneurial education, that creates a self-reliant ideology in people will lead to gross unemployment, which results in poverty and lack; this in turn creates survival instincts in individuals, and then brings about segregation among the people, Nigeria could never attain integration with the current educational strategy being used. Entrepreneurial education will however lead to increased employment, reduce poverty level, bring about entrepreneurs working together for common good and consequently establishing a stronger economy than the present Nigerian economy.
Entrepreneurs can take advantage of the nation’s state to grow their businesses, create jobs and employment for required skill sets they will find within their societies and grow. Poverty entails more than just the lack of income and productive resources to ensure sustainable livelihoods. Its manifestations include hunger and malnutrition, limited access to education and other basic services, social discrimination and exclusion as well as the lack of participation in decision-making. Various social groups bear disproportionate burden of poverty.
A social perspective on poverty should contribute to the debate on the effectiveness and limitations of current poverty reduction strategies, one of which is education. Education is critical to the development of personal economy from poverty level to at least the level of self-sustenance, however, the current curriculum of the Nigerian educational system, prepares the average graduate to be prepared to become employed by the available firms or business owners in the society, which an approach grows the number of unemployed in the society. Entrepreneurial education emphasizes more on the quality of education administered, than the number of students that pass through school. Hence, this study intends to investigate the challenges of effective teaching and learning of entrepreneurial education in college of education, Ikere Ekiti.
Statement of Problem
Education in Nigeria is devoid of the element crucial to averting the surging rate of entrepreneurial education in the country, therefore the breeding of psychological dependence on direct access to money. Entrepreneurial development through education will advance the economy of the nation; much credence should be given to it and ingrained with focus on profitable personal development. Unemployment prevails in the country, hence, the growth of violence, poverty and segregation amongst citizens, because the educational system itself fails to empower the ones passing through it.
This should be the core message of the evolving educational policy of Nigeria which is devoid of a system of education that emphasizes on the need to culture the country’s young through the knowledge of rudimentary entrepreneurial development, common cultural heritage, and identification of exploitable strengths of structures, systems and cultures of others. Thus this study examines challenges of teaching and learning of entrepreneurial education in College of Education Ikere Ekiti.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of the study is to investigate the challenges of effective teaching and learning of entrepreneurial education in College of Education Ikere Ekiti. The study intends to specifically;
- determine the state and availability of teaching materials for teaching and learning of entrepreneurial education.
- Find out how entrepreneurship education enhances acquisition of the necessary skills for gainful self-employment in Nigeria.
- Ascertain the challenges that hinder sound entrepreneurship education in college of education.
- Pinpoint the possible solutions to the identified challenges in the implementation of sound entrepreneurship education programmes in Nigerian schools.
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
- What is the state and availability of teaching materials for teaching and learning of entrepreneurship education.
- Does entrepreneurship education enhance acquisition of the necessary skills for gainful self-employment in Nigeria?
- What are the challenges that hinder sound entrepreneurship education in our society?
- What are the possible solutions to the identified challenges in the implementation of sound entrepreneurship education programmes in Nigerian schools?
The following hypotheses will help the study;
- There is no significance difference in the state and availability of teaching materials for teaching and learning of entrepreneurship education.
- There is no significance influence of entrepreneurship education on the enhancement of acquisition of the necessary skills for gainful self-employment in Nigeria.
- There is no significance effect of challenges on the sound entrepreneurship education in our society.
- There is no significance relationship between possible solutions to the identified challenges and implementation of sound entrepreneurship education programmes in Nigerian schools.
Significance of the Study
The focus of this study brings to the fore the crucial need for entrepreneurial education in Nigeria, putting more consideration on the educational system, strategies and its eventual social developmental effect in the society. The study highlights the problems of the level of education in the country and its equivalence to level of poverty in the society by virtue of lack of employment or knowledge of how to startup businesses. One of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) goals highlights education as a critical factor for reducing poverty and dependency in developed nations.
Therefore, this study will contribute to knowledge by identifying what is important to the economy, which is qualitative education focused on the needs of the economy per time. This is not the first research on entrepreneurial education; however, it is the one of research works that has to do with a comparative study on what is being implemented by different college of education to see its effectiveness in order to ascertain the strategy which would eventually help for the Nigerian economy in truly eradicating unemployment in Nigeria. So, the findings in this study will be of great benefits to general public of dear country, Nigeria.
Significance of the Study
The imperativeness of this study cannot be underrated. The study will be of high significance in that it will help the following categories of people in the following ways; teachers, parent, students and school administrators to consider the challenges of effective teaching and learning of entrepreneurial education in College of Education Ikere Ekiti.
This study will serve as an eye opener to the lecturers in knowing the problems of effective teaching and learning of entrepreneurial education. This research work will serve as information to the lecturers on existing challenges of effective teaching and learning of entrepreneurial education as well as ways of controlling them. Some lecturers are no longer interested in lectures entrepreneurial education because of plight attached to course. Thus, this study will help them tackle such problem headlong.
The school authorities will benefit immensely from this study, as it will help keep them informed on the recent techniques to make teaching and learning of entrepreneurial education effectively interesting. Inability of the school authority to provide adequate facilities has hampered learning of entrepreneurial education. But the results of study will outline ways of providing the necessary facilities with ease.
Government would not be left out in the list of the beneficiaries of this study. The research work will help the government to see reasons why schools should be equipped with necessary entrepreneurial learning facilities and more qualified lecturers should be employed to teach entrepreneurial education very well. Also it will encourage the government to organize seminars and workshops to update the knowledge and experience of existing entrepreneurial education lecturers. .
This study will in no small measure assist parents and the society at large in knowing what their children and wards face while learning entrepreneurial education. Thus, they see ways of assisting them to solve the lingering problems and constraints of learning entrepreneurial education. Most parents and guardians do not provide the basic materials needed by their wards. Many students in tertiary institutions do not have necessary course materials, textbooks, writing materials etc. It is a well-known fact that lack of needed necessary educational materials, make learning difficult let alone examination preparation. Hence, the result of the study is hoped to be an eye opener to parents to meet their children’s need in learning entrepreneurial education effectively.
Students will be derived benefits from this study. It will expose the extent to which challenges of teaching and learning of entrepreneurial education has hampered their academic performance. It will help them to know the way out of the various problems. Equally, it will guide them to step up their seriousness learning of entrepreneurial education despite the odds.
It is expected that this study will proffer salient information that would assist the society at large to rise up and curtail the level of challenges confronting teaching and learning of entrepreneurial education. There is no gainsaying in the fact this study will go along a way to unravel to society in general, the various strategies they could use to make teaching and learning of entrepreneurial education easy.
The would-be researchers in the related topic of this study will find this study as a point of reference to substantiate their facts and figures. It will serve as a foundational premise to fall back upon in carrying out their researches in the shortest possible time.
It is expected that this study would help the curriculum planners to map out the curriculum in line with students’ ability and cognitive level. So that it will not serve as a challenge to the entrepreneurial education students. Without any iota of doubt, the study will point out some lopsided areas in the curriculum that makes students to suffer some difficulties in learning of entrepreneurial education.
Scope of the Study
This study was limited to students in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti, in Ikere-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti state. The study involves school one to school five in college of education, Ikere-Ekiti.
Definition of Terms
The following terms were operationally defined in this study:
Education: the process of teaching and learning, usually at school, college, or university
Unemployment: the number of people in a particular country or area who cannot get a job
Entrepreneur: someone who starts a new business or arranges business deals in order to make money, often in a way that involves financial risks
Lecturer: someone who gives lectures, especially in a university
Students: someone who is studying at a university, school etc
This chapter will be reviewed under the following sub-topics;
- Entrepreneurship Defined
- Who is an Entrepreneur
- Concept of Entrepreneurship Education
- Entrepreneurship Education in Nigeria
- Entrepreneurship Education and Technical Skills
- Benefits of Entrepreneurship
- Entrepreneurship Education in Nigeria: Role of Universities & Polytechnics
- Entrepreneurship Education in Nigeria and Challenges
- Challenges of Nigerian Higher institution on Entrepreneurship Education.
- Summary of Literature Review.
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