COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF READING PROGRAMES IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ADO-EKITI
The study examined the comparative analysis of reading programmes in public and private primary school pupils in Ekiti State. The study also sought to determine the role of teachers in promoting reading skills, determine the whether parents have roles in promoting reading skills, investigate the problems facing pupils who are learning to read and examine how conducive environment and good facilities promote reading ability of pupils in primary school.
This study made used of descriptive research design to study the comparative analysis of reading programmes in some selected public and private primary schools in Ado Ekiti. This research collects data and describes it in a systematic manner. The population for this research work covers all the pupils in Ado local Government Area of Ekiti. While two hundred (200) pupils were randomly selected from ten primary schools. Five private school and five public schools were selected for the purpose of this study. The stratified random sampling technique was used for the selection. A test re-test method was used to ensure reliability of the instrument. The test-retest results showed that the questionnaire had a reliability value of 0.75. This was regarded high enough to merit the conclusion that the instrument was reliable.
Findings showed that respondents agreed that providing knowledge and skills for pupils to read, motivating children to read, planning and organizing uninterrupted classroom time for reading instruction and plenty of meaningful practice, observing and assessing the current strengths and needs of children are the major role of teachers in promoting reading skills. The study concluded that reading is indispensable to primary school pupils. With the appropriate reading materials, a conducive environment, and teachers with adequate educational qualifications, good reading skills will help produce pupils who perform well in other subjects. Government, teachers, and parents have major roles to play in the education of pupils in primary schools, especially on English as a school subject. Eighty-eight percent of respondent felt that teachers play a greater role. Government is the major provider of education through funding, rules, and regulations.
Based on the findings, it was therefore recommended that government schools should employ qualified teachers who can teach primary schools pupils how to read and pronounce sound without interference with mother tongue, pupils should be observed when reading and corrected if any mistake is made, teachers must acknowledge the importance of reading skills and must plan an effective programme of reading instruction with a focus on promoting reading culture among pupils in their schools, School authorities should introduce informal education on readiness for reading. Non-structured reading instruction should be introduced and the child’s ability to respond to the reading materials be observed and parents should provide a stimulating reading environment for their children and wards. They should encourage their children to read at home. Books should be provided for them to improve their reading.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Delimitation of the Study
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Reading
Reading Programmes and its Importance
Approaches in teaching reading in primary schools
Types of Teaching and Learning Activities
Advantages of Reading Approach
Disadvantages of Reading Approach
Methods for Learning Reading
Implementation of Teaching and Learning of literacy
Influence of Home Environment on Acquisition of Reading
Problems Facing Teaching and Learning of Reading Literacy
How Reading Literacy Levels in Public Primary Schools
Can be improved
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Validity of Instrument
Reliability of Instrument
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Test of Hypothesis
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Background to the Study
English language is one of the major language of the world today and a lingua franca of the future. In some areas today , English language still serves as medium of contact with civilization. According to Kerr (2009) English language of the modern sector science and technology , industry and big business, government and higher administration.
English langue has become the dominant of literacy expression in the country and in many African countries today. English language is the language of the English people. It is a Western Germanic language that originates from Anglo-Frisian dialect brought to Britain in the 5th century. It is one of the most famous language and it is spoken by billions of people as mother tongue while some other people learn and speak it as their second language. Nigeria belong to the second category.
The fact that English is being taught as a second language went to the fact that the pupils have already acquired first language. Most of the time the bias of a second language learner is allowed to over -rule the second language [Execk WordPress. Com,2015.]
In Nigeria, English language is regarded as the language of economics, law court, mass media, education, science and technology and of local and central government. Today, English is learnt as a school subject and it equally the medium of instruction right from primary to tertiary institution. It is apparent that, since the product of these schools will be absorbed into various employment where English language is the official language of communication and where proficiency in it is the necessary qualification for obtaining such employment [Execk WordPress. Com,2015].
In learning English language, there is the assumption that there is already a primary language, which is the mother tongue. For this, it is more difficult to learn a second language than the first language [Execk WordPress. Com, (2015). English language as grown to a great extent in the Nigeria society over the years. It is the official legacy from colonialist and its importance in Nigeria educational process remains unchallenged .Therefore, the preeminent position of English in educational system is likely to remain for a long time.
Reading is an active process and the learner has to be prepared to handle printed page with anticipation with questions ad specific intent. Reading is the process of communication through which most forma learning takes place. It involve understanding written language. Before reading can take place, reader must understand the language of the written work or material or paper.
Reading, a lifelong habit, is the major source of access to the knowledge. It is taken as an implicit practice that supports an individual to achieve original power and develops one’s critical thinking capability Ofodu (2015).
According to Billows (2011), reading is a mental process involving the interpretation of words the author has exploited to express his ideas.
The importance of reading in education is so great that it cannot be taken for granted. In teaching reading, we need to aim at remembering and reading what we have read in order to be able to use such information later, it also enhance learning and help your vocabularies.
Reading is one of the four language skills; listening, speaking, reading and writing. For reading to be meaningful, the pupils must know the reason why they are reading a text. Knowing the purpose could be general one like reading novel for pleasure or like looking for pictures or looking for number or address.
Statement of the Problem
Nursery and primary schools are the elementary stage of learning environment of any given child, it is important to the child as a foundation to build. A well planned foundation will produce a good building likewise a well standard nursery and primary school (be it public or private) will produce good readers and scholars.
It was identified that the level of reading in primary schools is not encourage, which affect the enhancement of teaching and learning process. Many problems have been identified has reasonable for poor reading performance of primary schools pupils.
Firstly, the reading method used for primary school pupils are not appropriate for their age and classes, teachers are expected to use the best method for the pupils in order for them to understand better. Such as phonics methods, look and say method, the language experience approach, picture reading.
Secondly, lack of parental care, most parents do not care about their children performance in school specially in reading aspect. For example parents are expected to employed professional teacher who is good in pronunciation to guide their children in reading in extra lesson classes but instead they leave the children alone and believe that the normal class activities is enough for them.
Thirdly, inadequate facilities is another problem identified. The material needed by the pupils are not supplied on time by their parents, even some do not have access to any of the materials; like English textbooks, story books, and Queen Primer. Provision should be made for library facilities in primary schools were pupils can go and search for books of their interest and update their knowledge through the guidance of the teacher.
All these mentioned above have implication on a child’s education if not well managed. Therefore, this research took notice of all problems and proffer useful solutions to them.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this research is to examine the comparative analysis of reading programmes in public and private primary schools in Ado Ekiti. The study also sought to address the following
- To determine the role of teachers in promoting reading skills,
- To determine the whether parents have roles in promoting reading skills.
- To investigate the problems facing pupils who are learning to read.
- To examine how conducive environment and good facilities promote reading ability of pupils in primary schools?
- To offer suggestions for improvements in teaching to promote reading programmes in public and private schools
This study sought to answer the following research questions.
- What are the major role of teachers in promoting reading skills?
- What are the contribution of parents towards effective reading ability of their children in schools?
- Does a conducive environment and good facilities promote reading ability of pupils in primary schools?
- What are the problems facing pupils who are learning to read?
- What are the suggestions for improvements in teaching to promote reading programmes in public and private schools
The following hypotheses were tested;
- There is no relationship between role of teachers in promoting reading skills and pupils reading ability
- There is relationship between parents roles in promoting reading skills and pupils reading ability
- There is no relationship between conducive environment and good facilities promote and pupils reading ability.
Significance of the Study
The aim of this study is to assess the comparative analysis of reading programmes in public and private primary schools.
. This study will increase available knowledge in the field of education about the comparative analysis of reading programmes in public and private primary schools, thus increasing the literature factors that influence learning outcome in basic education.
The knowledge derived from this study will assist school administrators and teachers to be aware of the factors associated with the learning environment, learning process, characteristics of the teachers and pupils that influence achievement of basic reading literacy so that they can adjust accordingly.
It is also hoped that the study findings will promote the parents awareness on the factors that are preventing achievement of basic reading literacy among children and assist the pupils where necessary on the same.
The findings of this study will create awareness to the Ministry of Education, Government policy makers, Non-Government Organization and United Nations Organization about the specific factors hindering achievement of basic reading literacy outcomes in Nigeria so that they can mount interventions to enhance the achievement of the MDGs.
The study will be of much help to the primary school pupils because they will be informed of the factor that are influencing their achievement of basic reading literacy skills.
Finally, the findings from the study will add to the knowledge on which further research on related issues can be based.
Delimitations of the Study
This study focused on the assessment of comparative analysis of reading programmes in public and private primary schools. Basic reading literacy in this study was delimited to the ability to read and comprehend simple text set at class two level of the Nigerian primary education system. The factors studied were those emanating from school, home environments and from the characteristic of the pupils.
The study involved the primary schools pupils aged between 7 to 12 years. Literacy teachers in primary schools were involved since they are normally in direct contact with the pupils and are responsible for teaching and learning of reading literacy. The head teachers of primary schools were involved since they are normally in-charge of implementation of teaching and learning.
Definition of Terms
Basic Reading: Ability to identify and distinguish letters and sounds of the alphabet and use of the sound- letter correspondence to sound out words. Also known as decoding words.
Basic Reading Literacy: Ability to decode and sound out one to four syllable words.
Primary school: School for children between the ages 5years to around 16 years.
Pre-school: A school for children who are too young for nursery or kindergarten. Also referred to as baby class.
Reading literacy skill: Ability to effortlessly recognize and sound out words and text fast and accurately.
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