COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF DISCUSSION AND LECTURE METHOD OF TEACHING ON PHYSICS STUDENT’S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
Background to the Study
The importance of students’ learning to put their latent skills to optimal use is self-evident as education inculcates decision-making abilities in students. Learning of different subjects may not yield similar results as there are many factors effects students achievement but teaching methods almost have same effect on students learning. Teaching of Physics is facing dilemma on the part of teachers as well as students. Physics curricula should inculcate creative thinking and critical analysis in students. Physics foundations must be a part of curriculum to develop the concepts and the ideas of Physics. Physics students outfitted with crystal-clear concepts should have the proficiencies to solve problems, in the classroom, laboratory, practical problems related to industry, and house-hold real life.
A research in Physics Education has played tremendous role in the investigating of students’ difficulties in learning, developing and analyzing new teaching methods. It has been growing rapidly and becoming a major field of research in Physics (Hake, 2009). Physics educational research outputs have already made a strong impact in changing the teaching methodology of many Physicsinstructors.
There have been many educators, particularly those who work in the fields of Physical Sciences and Physics, found to have problems of misconception in understanding topics involving physical phenomena. Misconception of Physics concepts occur among those who are graduates and Physics major. Thus in the effort of improving teaching methods, it is very important to explore and carry out research which can further investigate the level of misconceptions and teaching methodology. Primarily, there are two types of teaching-learning strategies i.e. teacher centered and student-centered.
The teacher-centered model includes three main teaching methods; demonstration, lecture and question and answer. The specific activities or instructional functions connected with such teaching can include a daily review, checking homework, presenting new contents or skills, set feedback and evaluation of students’ performance. Student- centered (active learning) refers to techniques where students do more than simply listen to a lecture.
Engagement is seen to comprise active and collaborative learning, participation in academic activities, formative communication with academic staff, involvement in enriching educational experiences, and feeling legitimated and supported by University teaching communities (Coates, 2007). This definition suggests that engagement is the amalgamation of a number of distinct elements including active learning, collaborative learning, participation, communication among teachers and students and students feeling legitimated and supported. According to Hake (2008), interactive engagement method as opposed to traditional lecture is achieved by questioning students or challenging them to think or to do something that requires thought. Students interact with each other, with the instructor as a coach or guide, or with guided materials created by the instructor (on paper or computer). A key ingredient is frequent and thoughtful interaction.
These methods are designed at least in part to promote conceptual understanding through interactive engagement of students’ activities which yield immediate feedback through discussion with peers and/or instructors (Hake 2008). Interactive engagement methods allow students to participate in class activities that teach and provide formative assessment. A considerable amount of attention is devoted to develop students’ conceptual understanding before they start quantitative problem solving. Conceptual focus is achieved by utilizing the principle of concepts first (Heuvelen, 2001).
Although some educators consider the lecture method outdated and ineffective, it offers several advantages and reasons for its continued use. According to Adsit (2002), some points of traditional method (lecture) were discussed as follows: Today the lecture system is the preferred teaching style used by 89% of science professors (Timberlake, 2009). Indeed, lecture is a comfortable format for many instructors and an easy one for students. It is low cost, easy to control, and an excellent method for organizing course content. However, every teacher knows that during lecture, students are not actively engaged with the topic, they do not listen for very long time, and their retention of concepts is minimal
According to Joe (2004) scientific inquiry method implies involvement of students that leads to understanding. Furthermore, students’ involvement in learning implies possessing skills and attitudes that permit to seek resolutions to questions and issues while you construct new knowledge. “Inquiry” is defined as “a seeking for truth, information, or knowledge — seeking information by questioning.”.
Student inquiry is defined as a versatile activity that involves making observations, posing questions, examining books and other sources of information to see what is already known; planning investigations; reviewing what is already known in light of the student’s experimental evidence; using tools to gather, analyze and interpret data; proposing answers, explanation, and predictions; and communicating the results. Inquiry requires use of assumptions, use of critical and logical thinking, and consideration of alternative explanations (Exline, Joe, 2003). The present study was intended to scrutinize the comparative effects of discussion and lecture method of teaching on Physicsstudent’s academic performance in Senior Secondary School in Ikere-Ekiti of Ekiti state.
Statement of the Problem
There have been so much cry and agitation from the educational stake holders about the poor performance of students in Physics. Several factors have been identified as responsible for the poor performance of the students in Physics. One of such factor has to do with idiosyncrasies of classroom interaction which are in parts traceable to the insufficient interaction between the teachers and students.
It is on the basis of those outlined facts that this study was carried out to find the comparative effects of discussion and lecture method of teaching on Physics student’s academic performance in Senior Secondary School.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to find out the comparative effects of discussion and lecture method of teaching on Physics student’s academic performance in Senior Secondary School in Ikere-Ekiti of Ekiti state. Also the study intends to:
- determine whether students taught using discussion method and those taught using lecture method differ significantly in their academic performance in Physics.
- ascertain the performance differential between the male and female students taught Physics using discussion method.
- find out the performance differential between the male and female students taught Physics using lecture method
The following research questions were raised to guide the study.
- What is the difference between the performance of students taught using discussion method and those taught using lecture method?
- What is the difference between the performance of male and female students taught Physics using discussion method?
- What is the difference between performance of male and female students taught Physics using lecture method?
From the above research questions, the following hypotheses were generated.
- There is no significant difference in the performance of students taught Physics using discussion method and those taught using lecture method.
- There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught Physics using discussion method.
- There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught Physics using lecture method.
Significance of the Study
The significance of the classroom interaction in any subject cannot be over emphasized. In secondary schools, there has been no particular teaching method established in the conventional classroom situation.
Therefore, the result of this study is expecting to assist the Physicsteachers to consciously structure their class so as to induce in the learners the knowledge necessary for meaningful Physics learning. Also, the result is expected to help the curriculum innovators to prescribe the structuring meaningful classroom teaching method necessary for promoting higher performance of students in Physics.
Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited to senior secondary schools in Ikere-Ekiti Local Government Area. It comprised of senior secondary school two Physics students in public secondary schools in Ikere-Ekiti Local Government Areas of Ekiti State. The study covers some selected S.S.S IPhysics curriculum contents.
Definition of Terms
The following terms were operationally defined in this study:
Teaching: This is the process of transferring ideas through methods by the teacher to the students’ in order to ensure learning.
Learning: This is the process of acquiring new ideas which involve change in behavior after acquiring new concept.
Students: someone who is studying at a university, school etc
Classroom: a room that you have lessons in at a school or college
Teacher: someone whose job is to teach, especially in a school
School: a place where children are taught
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