CORRUPTION AS A THREAT OR FAVOUR TO SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
1.1 Background to the study
Nigeria is a typical country in Africa where development has been undermined and refrain by the menace of corrupt practices, without doubt, corruption has permeated the Nigerian society and in the words of Achebe “anyone who can say that corruption in Nigeria has not yet been alarming is either a fool; a crook or else does not live in this country. The situation has become so bad to the extent that as far back 1993, keeping an average Nigerian from being corrupt and a goat from eating yam (Achebe, 1989). Corruption is an enigma to good governance as it leads to misappropriation of public funds, and limited growth of the economy. Corruption is a social phenomenon, which affects every sphere of the society in Nigeria today. It interferes with the political, social and economic lives of the people with the poor bearing the brunt of it (Ogbeide, 2012). Word Bank, referred to corruption as “the single most important obstacle to development in developing countries”, thus defining it as the “misuse of public office for private gains”. The lackadaisical attitude or manners exhibited by Leaders in handling public funds as if it were their personal properties entails what corruption is in Nigeria. (Ola and Offiong, 2007). Corruption is also fairly accommodated as past leaders, public office holders; retired public officers, contractors, and business accomplices live comfortably in wealth, opulence, and affluence with their loot. Many have turned out to be powerful party chieftains, political patrons and middlemen, political appointees (Ikelegbe, 2010). Corruption disturbs the market economy, leading to currency fluctuations and investment outflows and inflows. The concept of corruption is a very ancient one, the definition of it is multi-faceted and it depends on the situation, the players, laws and regulations governing a country.
This study when completed, will examine the relationship between corruption and sustainable development in Nigeria. The causes and the evolution of corruption in Nigeria will also take an integral part of this work. Measures that have been put in place to eradicate this menace of corruption, such as the establishment of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC) will also be looked into.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Corruption has been called so many things in the Nigerian society. It is not a hidden social ill anymore. People engage in it without thinking. Despite the degree of exposure and criticism they receive from the mass and social media, they still continue to indulge in it. Corruption in Nigeria seems to have taken a systematic and institutional wave, as it can be found in various classes of the society. Corruption has killed the conscience of the people: Corruption in Nigeria appears in different forms: bribery, theft of public fund, coercion by superior powers or senior officers, examination malpractices, unwarranted gifts (in forms of contracts, exotic cars, houses and money).The question that easily engages the mind of Nigerians is – why is the menace of corruption so endemic in the country? What factors causes people to engage in corrupt practices?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study intends to achieve the following goals:
- To examine the rate of corruption in Nigeria since 2007-2016.
- To examine the factors that causes corrupt practices of public officers in Nigeria.
- To examine the relationship between corruption and anti-development efforts of the government.
- Find out through this study how the war against can sustain development in Nigeria.
- Research Hypotheses
- There is a relationship between poverty and corruption in Nigeria.
- There is a relationship between poor leadership and corruption.
- There is a relationship between corruption and sustainable development
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research work examines the manifestation of corruption in Nigeria, the factors largely held to be responsible for its prevalence and recommend ways of checking the problems. The period covered by this study is from 2007-2016. The nature of this research work is limited in the area of eliciting information and gathering of data through the administration of questionnaire, and from online journals, books and other articles. Also, the research work was confronted with limited time to carry out this research.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is hoped to draw the attention of the society to corruption and how it has led to the underdevelopment of the country. The study also hopes to act as a guide on how to minimize or curb the problem of corruption.
1.7 Definition of Used Terms
Corruption: Corruption is a form of anti-social behavior by an individual or social group which confers unjust or fraudulent benefits on its perpetrators.
Development: Development entails the provision of public goods which is geared towards the advancement in the quality of life of the citizenry.
Sustainable development: Sustainable development implies the maintenance of the socio-cultural, political, economic, and intellectual developmental processes achieved over the years.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one introduces the problem under study and also reveals the objectives and significance of this study. It is followed by chapter two, which contains a review of relevant literature of the central concept-corruption-and the theoretical framework adopted for this study. Chapter three explains the methodology employed for this study. Chapter four entails the analysis of the data obtained, while chapter five is made up of summary, findings, conclusion and recommendations.
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
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