Curriculum implementation is very paramount to teaching and learning in developing country discuss
Curriculum defined as planned, purposeful, progressive, and systematic process in order to create positive improvements in the educational system. Every time there are changes or developments happening around the world, the school curricula are affected. There is a need to update them in order to address the society’s needs.
To illustrate this contention, let’s trace back history. During the ancient times, people taught their children knowledge and skills in order to survive by catching fish or hunting animals for food. They had no formal education during that time, but their children learned and acquired the knowledge and skills for survival. So, during that time, they already had a curriculum which other educators call as, the saber-tooth curriculum. This type of curriculum refers to a kind of curriculum that existed during the ancient times in which the purpose of teaching was for survival.
However, when the effects of discoveries and inventions became inevitable, ancient people’s way of life had changed for the better. As a result, education became formal and curriculum development evolved as systematic, planned, purposeful and progressive, even today.
Impact on Administrators: Administrators follow a detailed curriculum to help students achieve state and national standards of academic performance. Schools can lose public funding if students fall substantially behind peers at higher performing schools. The curriculum ensures that each school is teaching students relevant material and monitoring the progress of students from all types of backgrounds.
Paramount to Teachers: A school’s curriculum informs teachers what skills must be taught at each grade level to ultimately prepare students for postsecondary education or a job. Understanding the big picture helps teachers align the learning objectives of their own curriculum with the school’s curriculum. In the absence of a curriculum, teachers wouldn’t know whether students are building a solid foundation to support learning at the next level.
Paramount to Students: A curriculum outlines for students a sequence of courses and tasks that must be successfully completed to master a subject and earn a diploma or degree. Students may be more motivated to study if they understand why certain subjects are taught in the curriculum. A curriculum reassures students that they’re on the right track to reaching their goals and honing desired skills.
In addition to teaching students academic skills, the curriculum is also intended to teach students the importance of responsibility, hard work and responsible citizenship. Teachers in partnership with parents and community members collaborate on the development of a curriculum that will instill character in students and reinforce positive behavior.
Curriculum plays an important role in forging life-long learning competencies, as well as social attitudes and skills, such as tolerance and respect, constructive management of diversity, peaceful conflict management, promotion and respect of Human Rights, gender equality, justice and inclusiveness. At the same time, curriculum contributes to the development of thinking skills and the acquisition of relevant knowledge that learners need to apply in the context of their studies, daily life and careers. Curriculum is also increasingly called upon to support the learner’s personal development by contributing to enhancing their self-respect and confidence, motivation and aspirations.
The paramount question for this analytical Tool is whether or not the curriculum we have in place enables us to impart on our learners the kinds of competencies (i.e. knowledge, skills and attitudes that are underpinned by values) we require for the type of society we envision to build and the challenges people have to face now and in the future. The paramount question can be addressed by assessing the alignment of the curriculum to national development goals, the effectiveness of curriculum policies as well as the development, design and planning of the curricula. Finally Curriculum provides a mirror of what the goal, perhaps, of education should look like and for a better understanding of the concept .
HOW FAR HAS THIS CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION AIDED NIGERIA EDUCATION
In today’s knowledge economy, curriculum development plays a vital role in improving the economy of a country. It also provides answers or solutions to the world’s pressing conditions and problems, such as environment, politics, socio-economics, and other issues on poverty, climate change and sustainable development.
There must be a chain of developmental process to develop a society. First, the school curriculum particularly in higher education must be developed to preserve the country’s national identity and to ensure its economy’s growth and stability. Thus, the president of a country must have a clear vision for his people and for the country as well.
If universities have curricular programs that are innovative and in demand in the local or global markets, many students even from foreign countries will enroll. Higher number of enrollees would mean income on the part of the universities. As a result, if the income is big, it can be used for teachers’ promotion, scholarship and remuneration. It can also be used in funding research and development endeavors, and in putting up school facilities, libraries, and laboratories.
I believe that the country’s economy can improve the people’s way of life through curriculum development. And in order to develop it, curriculum experts or specialists should work hand in hand with the lawmakers (senators and congressmen), the local government officials, such as governors, mayors, and others; the business communities and industries; and stakeholders to set implementing rules and policies for educational reforms.
The paramount role of curriculum implementation in Nigeria can not be over emphasis, curriculum implementation has aided Nigeria education system by,
- Guiding the process of decision making on what to cover, what to emphasize what content to select and which learning experiences to stress.
- Setting the scope and the limits for what is to be taught and learned.
- Helping the selection of areas of knowledge in various discipline objectives
- Serving as a guide for the evaluation of achievements.
A curriculum is considered the “heart” of any learning institution which means that schools or universities cannot exist without a curriculum. With its importance in formal education, curriculum has become a dynamic process due to the changes that occur in our society. Therefore, in its broadest sense, curriculum refers to the “total learning experiences of individuals not only in school, but in society as well” (Bilbao et al., 2008).
When it comes to classroom time management, the class teacher is the main player. A teacher who is not time conscious is not disciplined and a drawback in as far as curriculum implementation is concerned. For instance, a teacher of English who goes to class five  minutes for each lesson in a particular class everyday, will have lost 25minutes at the of the week. That is a lot of learners time wasted and will derail the implementation of the curriculum since curriculum developers take time into consideration when developing the curriculum. Teacher absenteeism from work for various reasons also costs the pupils learning time. Learner absenteeism from school also deprives the learner of learning time. In addition, the need to devote inordinate amount of time to the management of problems of large classes effectively reduce students’ time on the learning task which results in the failure to complete the intended content for the lesson and will necessitate the allocation of more time to the same task(Kelly:1999). Apart from that mock and final examinations also take up learning time for non examination classes.
It should be noted that there are many factors that have a negative effect on curriculum implementation, it has been observed that, the nation’s economy plays a vital role in as far as the implementations of the curriculum is concerned. The availability of all resources required in the education system to facilitate effective teaching and learning processes depend on the money available. To a larger extent even the learners well-being in terms of good health and nutrition is also determined by the nation’s economy. In view of this, curriculum developers, adopters and implementers should be mindful of destructors such as these and address them adequately in order to minimize the impediments to curriculum implementation in learning institutions.
Moronkola, O. A.; Akinsola, M. K. and Abe, C. V. (2000). The Nature of Curriculum. Ibadan: Royal People (Nigeria) Ltd.
Nicholls, A. and Nicholls, H. (1978). Developing a Curriculum: A Practical Guide. London: George Allen and Uwin.
Onwuka, U. (1981). Curriculum Development for Africa. Onitsha: Aficana
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