ECONOMIC STATUS OF PARENTS AS THE DETERMINANT OF ECONOMICS STUDENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKITI STATE.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
- BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- RESERCH HYPOTHESES
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CONCEPT OF ECONOMIC STATUS
2.2 TYPES OF ECONOMIC STATUS
2.3 STUDENTS ATTITUDE TO TEACHING OF ECONOMICS
2.4 ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS
2.5 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTAL ECONOMIC STATUS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
2.6 SUMMARY OF EMPIRICAL LITERATURE
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.3 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.4 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
3.5 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.6 ADMINISTRATION OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.7 DATA ANALYSIS
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1.1 Background to the Study
A person’s education is closely linked to their life chances, income, and well being [Battle and Lewis, 2002]. Therefore, it is important to have a clear understanding of what benefits or hinders one’s educational attainment.
There are several topical areas that are most commonly linked to academic performance of students in senior secondary schools including students Role performance [S R P] factors, school factors family factors and peer factors students Role performance is how well an individual fulfills the role of a student in an educational setting sex, race, school effort, extra-curricular activities, influence test scores [crosnoe, Johnson and Elder, 2004]. One’s family background has also been found to influence student test scores. Research has found that socio-economic status, parental involvement, and family size are particularly important family factors (Majorbank, 1996). Peer influence can also affect student performance. Peer pressure and peer conformity can lead to an individual participating in risk-taking behaviours which have been found to have a negative, direct effect on test scores (Santor, Messervey and Kusumaker,2002).
Academic performance is undoubtedly a research after the heart of educators, teachers, psychologist, policy makers, parent and guardians, social workers e.t.c. In their attempt to investigate what determines academic outcomes of learners, they have come with more questions than answer. In recent, prior literature has shown that learning outcomes (academic achievements and academic performance) have been determined by such variables as family, schools, society and motivation factors (Aremu and Jokan, 2003; Aremu and Oluwole, 2001; Aremu, 2000). In the same vein, Parker, Creque, Harris, Majek, Wool and Hogan (2003) noted that much of the previous studies have focused on the impact of demographic and socio-psychological variables on academic performance is government factor (Aremu and Sokan, 2003; Aremu ,2004). In spite of the seeming exhaustiveness of literature on the determinant of academic performance of learners, there seems to be more area of interest to be investigated. This becomes obvious in view of the continuous interest of researchers; and continous attention of government and policy makers and planners.
It has been observed that the falling academic standard and the influencing factors include the economic status of the parent. Owing to the present economic situation in the country, many poor parents are forced by circumstance to saddle the young ones with chores like hawking wares, cleaning the house and doing other menial job around the house before going to school and after school hour. Domestic chores like these no doubt help to train the children and make them realize that they can and should contribute their own quota to the general upkeep of the family. However, when parents and guardians burden their children with works excessively, leaving little or no study time for the children their school work in bound to suffer (Akanle, 2007).
Danesty and Otediran (2002) lamented that street hawking among young school students have psychologically imposed other problems like sex networking behavior, juvenile delinquent behavior, which takes much of the student school time that necessitated the poor academic performance and dropout syndrome noticed among young school students. Nevertheless, they also lamented that the maternal and paternal deprivation of the essential needs of the young students have prompted their poor performance in public examination, such as West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO).
Ipaye (1996) in the same vein reiterated the effects of economic status of parents on the Nigeria child. According to him poverty syndrome imposed by economic crunch, maladministration, corruption and emergency closure of firms, has imposed hardship among parents/workers. They in turn have not been able to provide adequately for the basic fundamental, social and academic need of the students. Many students have abandoned school to engage in commercial sex or child labour to make ends meet to support self and others. By this, they spend much time on these acts than schooling; this has terrible effect on their academic performance in their school work and public examination.
School sector (public or private) and class size are two important structural components of schools which the economic status of parent would determine the one they could afford. Private schools tend to have both better funding and smaller class sizes than public schools. The additional funding of private schools leads to better academic performance and more access to resources such as computer which have shown to enhance academic performance and achievement (Crosnoe, Johnson, Elder, 2004; and Eamon, 2005). Smaller class sizes create more inmate settings and therefore can increase teacher-student bonding which has also been shown to have a positive effect on student’s success. Student from low economic background who attend poorly funded schools do not perform as well as students from higher economic classes (Crosnoe et al, 2004, Eamon, 2005). This trend is posing huge problems to parents, government, political parties and stakeholders in education.
The poor academic performance of student is posing a problem to educators and a serious concern to parent. It is revealed that the quality of parent and home background of a student goes a long way to predict the quality and regularity of the satisfaction and provision of a child’s functional survival and academic needs. Poor parental care with gross deprivation of social and economic needs of a child, usually yield poor academic performance of the child.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The gap in performance between students and academic excellence constitute a great source of worry and serious concern as well as discomfort to both parents, schools, managers, policy makers and various governments responsible for the education of students in secondary schools.
Experience has shown that among the secondary students, there exist some differences which influence student academic performance such as some students being able to pay their school fees promptly, while others are often sent away for nonpayment of school fees, some students have problem with the provision of school uniform but others do not. One then wonders whether influence of family background had played a role in these issues.
In the light of this, the main problem of this research is to find out if there exists in Ekiti State a relationship between economics status of parents and students academic performance.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the influence of economic status of parents on academic performance of students in Ekiti State.
Specific objectives of the study include;
- To investigate into the effect of economic status of parents on the educational performance of economics students.
- To find out whether educational attainment of parents affect their students’ academic performance in economics.
- To find out the influence of family size on educational upbringing of economics students.
- To examine if family background plays a significant role in academic performance of economics students.
1.4 Research Question
For the purpose of this research work the following research question has been formulated;
- Do parents economic status influences the academic performance of the students?
- Do parent’s educational attainments have any influence on the performance of economics students?
- Does family size have any influence on the academic performance of students?
- Does family background plays any significant role on academic performance of economic students?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
To answer the above research questions, the possible hypothesis in the alternative form can be stated as below;
- The economic status of parents has no significant effect on the academic performance of economics students.
- The parent’s educational attainment has no significant influence on the performance of economics students.
- Family size has no significant on academic performance of economics students.
- Family background does not play any significant role in academic performance of economics students.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The work of the nature when completed may help the parents to be aware of the effect the family has on children and how such affect the child positively or negatively in relation to their academic performance. From the available recommendation, they will be able to adopt measures of bringing up their children in such a way that they will perform well academically.
Similarly, it is likely to engage parents to make their children relatively comfortable in schools. This study also could aid children of various families to be aware and bear in mind with their parents in ability to provide them with all the necessary requirement in schools, and also sympathize with them in family problems and situations.
More so, educational and curriculum planners could be guided in planning the curriculum without rigidity to suit diverse cultural environments. In addition, the teachers would be aware that a cordial teacher – parent relationship may in a way improve the influence of family background on the academic performance of a child in school.
The research of this nature is likely to help the state, nation and the world in general benefit from as adherence to the recommendation and implementation will help produce youth who would be better leaders of tomorrow.
Finally, the research when completed may add to available literature and may encourage further research on the topic.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is restricted to Ekiti State alone, with specific reference to six selected secondary schools in Ikere Local Government area.
The names of the schools are as follows:
- Amoye Grammar School, Ikere Ekiti.
- Ekiti State Government College, Ikere Ekiti.
- Ikere High School, Ikere Ekiti.
- Eleyo High School, Ikere Ekiti.
- Bobas High School, Ikere Ekiti.
- Ajolagun High School, Ikere Ekiti.
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