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This study attempt to investigate the effects of socio economics background  on academic achievement of students in mathematic among senior secondary schools. This study is a descriptive research, Questionnaire was the main instrument used in the collection of data. Due to the cost and time constraints opinions of 100 pupils were used for the study. Based on the findings of this work, recommendations were made to rectify the discrepancies detected. Consequently, the future researchers were enjoined to take an in-depth look at the work and use it as a take off point for investigating other areas not covered by this study.



Title Page





Table of Contents



Background to the Study

Statement of the Problem

Objective of the Study

Research Questions

Significance of the Study

Scope of the Study

Definition of Terms





Research Design


Sample and Sampling Technique

Research Instrument

Validity of the Instrument

Administration of the Instrument

Data Analysis












1.1 Background of the Study

Socio-economic background has a lot of roles to play in students’ achievements in mathematics science just as in other subject or discipline. However, Demarest et al. (2001) agree that socio-economic background is measured with age, sex, occupation, residents and residential level as well as the social status in the community. Families that fall within high socio-economic status often have more access to a wide range of resources to promote and support young children’s development. Coleman (1966), cited in Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia (2007), asserted that the influence of students background was greater than anything that goes on within schools.

Researchers also believe that the socio-economic background of the students has a great effect on their performances.

The low educational and occupational status of many parents has been viewed as an influential

determinant of students’ memory and academic achievement. Some research reports (Akinsola  and Tijani, 2004; Broody and Dowker, 2006) also suggest that students who come from economically poor families are more likely to forget materials and perform poorly in school than those from more economically stable families. Tella et al. (2007) study revealed that students from parents with high educational qualifications performed better than those from parents with lower educational qualifications. The value of socio-economic factors for predicting academic achievement seems to be specially supported by research. Adedeji (2008) found out that parents that are rich show more concern over their children’s academic achievement. White (1986) and Morakinyo (2003) indicate the existence of a relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and academic achievement. Aremu (2000) stresses that academic failure is not only frustrating to the students and the parents, its effects are equally grave on the society in terms of dearth of manpower in all spheres of the economy and politics. Ononuga (2005) asserted that education of the parents has an impact on the level of the performances of the students.




Many investigations have been carried out on socio-economic factors and academic performances of students in mathematics. The results obtained from both internal and external examinations shows that most of the student in secondary schools have poor performances in mathematics. These disparities in performances can be related to the socio-economic status of the students because the home background has significant effects on performances. Birth and upbringing have a significant role on academic performance. In Nigeria society, the poor performance of students in mathematics has been generating a lot of controversies many years ago. So many scholars have argued that poor performance of student in mathematics should be attributed to the socio-economic background of their parents.

Education not only provides knowledge and skills, but also inculcates values, training of instincts, fostering right attitude and habits. According to Muhammed and Muhammed (2010) they are of the opinion that, cultural heritage and values are transmitted from one generation to another through Education. The responsibility of training a child always lies in the hand of the parents. This is congruent with the common assertion by sociologist that education can be an instrument of cultural change which is being taught from home is relevant in this discuss. It is not out of place to imagine that parental socio-economic background can have possible effects on the academic achievement of children in school. Whatsoever affect the developmental stage of children would possibly affect their education or disposition to it. Parental status is one of such variables. When a woman’s nutritional status improves, so too does the nutrition of her young children “Parents of different occupational classes often have different styles of child rearing, different ways of disciplining their children and different ways of reacting to their children. These differences do not express themselves consistently as expected in the case of every families, rather they influence the average tendencies of families for different occupational classes.” (Rothestein, 2004).

The foregoing discussion had established that socio-economic status and host of other factors relating to home environment of students, such as educational background of parents, health status of students, parental occupation and family size could have effects on children academic achievement.

Jaroimek and Faster (2006) argued that parents who are educated and who receive average income are able to provide real for the education of their children to perform much better in their academics. Backare (2007) observed that parents from middle class provide averagely in the school. According to Beeker (2004) with parents having poor education, earning low income, living in areas promote less incentives and stimulation for the education of their children , such children  would perform poorly. Other indices which can determine the individual’s socio-economic class in the society, include the education of individual, residence. Series of suggestions have emerged from social psychologists that perhaps the household duties and other series of job given to the student from middle and lower social class when they return home from school are probably responsible for their poor performance in science most especially in Economics.

Its believed that children from middle class parent have little read and do their assignments while their counterparts from lower classes are deprived of this opportunities Children from upper class social have every opportunity to concentrate on their studies. They have little or no work to do at home, since majority of the domestic work are carried out by the house-helps they also have access to educational materials which could arise their interest. Therefore, Socio- economic factors on academic performances influences the development of personality which will in turn affect the academic in any subject. Parent of high Socio- economic factor use to come in contact with the highly motivated children irrespective of their age this may influence their concept and performance in some particular subjects.

Statement of the Problem

Observations and reports from examining bodies like WAEC, NECO and JAMB revealed that a high percentage of secondary school students continue to perform poorly in mathematics examinations. Despite the laudable efforts at developing an acceptable general mathematics curriculum students’ performance in the subject appears to be declining over the years. To alleviate the situation in the 1989, the National Mathematics Centre was established. Chief amongst its functions include:  To encourage and support activities leading to the improvement of the teaching and learning of mathematical sciences at all levels. To tackle national set goals in the development of mathematical sciences.  To inject mathematical education to the rarefied area of theoretical mathematics with a view to increasing the number of mathematicians.

Yet in the face of all these efforts the rate and degree of students’ poor performance in senior secondary school examination in mathematics must now be a problem of national concern. This sad situation is aptly described by Adeniyi (1988) who rightly observes, that one’s involvement in the marking of mathematics for the West African

This study therefore, takes critical look at the effect Socio- economic  on  academic performance of students in mathematics in the senior secondary school in Ikere Local Government, among the higher, middle, lower Socio- economic classes. Since the Socio- economic background depends on the factors like occupation, income level, education. Nowadays it is the income of the family that determines the position of the society when one takes a look at the social hierarchy of the society.

The study attempts to look into problems that could lead to the poor academic performance of mathematics students in the Secondary Schools The large number of pupil’s make the school administration complex the result of which in weakening of school tone thus affecting performance. These are the problems inability of parents to purchase adequate teaching facilities can make learning incomprehensive the effect of which could result in distorted and poor performance of the students.

Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study is to investiagate the effect of socio economic background on academic achievement of students in Mathematics among senior secondary schools students.

The specific objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. To find out whether educational levels of parents affects academic performance of students in mathematics in the Senior Secondary School.
  2. To determine whether peer group influence students’ academic performances.
  3. To ascertain whether socio- economic factor has influence on students’ academic performances in mathematics.
  4. To determine whether parents’ occupation do affect academics performance of students in mathematics.

 Research Questions

The following are the research question formulated:

  1. Does the educational level of parent affect the academic performance of students in Mathematics in Senior Secondary School?
  2. Does peer group have influence on students’ academic performances in mathematics?
  3. Is there any relationship between Socio-economic factor and academic performance of students in Mathematics?
  4. Is there any relationship between parents’ occupation and academic performances of students in Mathematics?
  5. Does the educational level of parents have influence on the students’ academic performances?

Significance of the Study

This research will show the effect of Socio- economic background of parents on the performance of the students in mathematics. This will enlighten people about the performance of students and about the Sociological consciousness in the society. The research will show the social and economic position of an individual in giving society which is determined   by occupation, income level, education etc as it affect the performance of students.

The study will make suggestion on how government can take care of students from the middle and lower classes in terms of providing infrastructural facilities, resources materials and other stimulation resources improve on the clearing of economics.

Moreover, the research work studies upper, middle, lower classes if there is any. The study will also help the policy makers especially the educational management to find out the right panacea to the mass failure in Economics in our senior secondary school today.

Scope of the Study

This study is restricted to six selected secondary schools in Ikere  local government Area of Ekiti State .

The names of the schools are as follows





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Updated: January 12, 2018 — 8:08 pm

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