Effects of Instructional Materials on the Teaching and learning of English Language as a second language in nursery schools
Background to the Study
In Nigeria as well as many other African countries, English language is acquired as second language learned against the liquistic background of the colonial experience of Nigeria, which brought the country under the relationship of the British and enforced bi-linguialism many of the citizens, Nigerians came in contact with English speakers and the imposing domineering tendencies of the colonialist and other expedient reason made it imperative for Nigerian to learn English.
Durosaro (1990) in agreement with other historians of education posit that the foremost aim of the education given to Nigerian in the wake of formal education in the country was training of shop keepers, catechists and interpreters. Native ward trained in writing, reading and basic arithmetic to make them efficient in their designated roles. The training was to bridge the communication gaps between the white and their native customers.
However, towards the closing of the nineteenth century, Nigerians became more involved in the political activities and their horizons of awareness became widened. They demanded for a broad based types of education. The greatest yardstick for measuring the attained standard in formal education still remain the degree of proficiency in English language for many years, as a result of many language policies of successive indigenous government in Nigeria, English language has continued to occupy a key position in education of her citizens for instance it is the language of instruction for all other subject taught in Nigerian school. It is a basic requirement for admission into higher institution of learning irrespective of the student discipline.
As a result of the relevant of the English language to the educational development of Nigeria, several efforts are being made to assist Nigerians in removing the stumbling blocks that prevent the smooth transition from the mothers tongue (MT) to the targeted English language to children at a tender age when they had not really mastered their mother tongue.
The teaching of English language to children as a language, require a lot of resourcefulness, skillfulness above all illustrations with instructional material of varying types and this make it become pertinent because of many peculiar reason such as:
- The behavioral pattern of the children particularly their inquisitiveness, which demands the presence of many materials to satisfy their quest of discovery.
- The psychological need for concretization of learning for the purpose of making learning permanent.
- The linquistic background of most children, where object ideals and values are expresses or named for a transfer of the expression of learned experience into language.
- Lack of sufficient trained specialist in English language and good models for the teaching of standard form of the language.
For the effective teaching of English language in the nursery schools, the skillful and tactical management of the activities that will lead to the acquisition of the four basic skills of the language school be depended on. According to Olugbamigbe (1994) the four basic skill to be acquired (in order of performance) are listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Aiming at the effective acquisition of the four languages skill in the nursery school cannot be over-emphasized because according to Osisaro (1995), the foundation of education is no doubt laid in the nursery primary school level if adequate care is taken to ensure that a proper foundation is laid in the development of correct language and acquisition skill the child, a right step would have been towards the attainment of functional literacy. In fact, instructional materials per-see have no inherent value, if they are not integrated into the teaching and learning situation and as they are available in the school, they should be utilized well. Instructional material are extremely useful of teaching with them teacher can make their teaching more meaningful and stimulating to their pupils.
Statement of the Problem
It is no gain saying that instructional materials play a crucial role in the teaching and learning of English language, especially among the pupils at the nursery school level, the level that serves as the foundation of education for all human beings.
However, the inability of the management of those school to principle the needed instructional materials to be used for the teaching of some aspect of the language has almost crippled the effective acquisition of English language at the nursery school.
Purpose of the Study
Instructional materials play important role in making language teaching and learning more effective and meaningful in nursery school.
The studies will provide opportunity for the identification of various instructional materials for the teaching and learning of English language in nursery schools.
It will also look into the problem that are preventing the adequate and uses of these instructional materials.
Research question for this research are the following:
- Who provide instructional material for the purpose of teaching?
- Is there any availability of instructional material for the use of the pupils in learning English language?
- Do teacher makes appropriate use of instructional materials for the teaching and learning during English lesson?
- How often do you invite specialist to assist in teaching pupils with instructional materials?
Significance of the Study
It is hoped that the research would be of importance to followings ways.
The adequacy of the available of the instructional materials will be determined, because it will give effective teaching of subject to the targeted audience.
It would establish appropriated use of instructional materials.
The finding of this study as well as the recommendation on use of instructional materials will be useful to the teacher.
Lastly, it is hoped that research work will be useful reference work for future researches, government agencies and curriculum planners.
Delimitation of the Study
The study is restricted to the selected nursery schools in Ado Ekiti local government area. The restricted was based on researcher conviction to attain precise and accuracy which might be difficult if the scope was widened beyond in Ado Ekiti local government.
Definition of Terms
Instructional material: Instructional materials are materials use to facilities teaching and learning e.g. chalkboard, television, projector, charts etc.
English language: English language is a foreign language in Nigeria context. It is also the official language in Nigeria.
Teaching: Teaching is any conscious activity aimed at impacting knowledge into a less experienced person by more experience one.
Learning: Learning is any conscious activity aimed at gaining knowledge from a more experience person by a less experience person. Nursery schools: This is an educational setting where children are prepare for basic elementary education.
Nursery schools: This is an educational setting where children are prepared for basic elementary education.
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