EFFECTS OF USING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Individuals and the society have seemed education as the key to success in life. In all human societies, past and present, education has been instrumental to effecting positively to the survival of individuals and the society. The capacity of development in any country can be measured through a properly planned and well directed education.
Thus, Education is a behavioral characteristic. It affects skills, attitudes, belief, ability to reason, knowledge and any other form which enable one to adjust and interact effectively with other individuals. Through the acquisition of skills, it enables an individual and the group to proceed into the actualization of the individuals destiny.
objectives which may be in accessible to many students.
Finally, a using instructional material makes learning available to a wider audience, control the pace of learning, promote better understanding and help to overcome physical difficulties in presenting the subject content.
- Statement of the Problem
Many of the school authorities have very lukewarm attitudes over the provision of needed equipments required for effective business studies, especially business studies in junior secondary schools. This non-challant attitude tends to retard genuine efforts of some teachers of business studies in the secondary schools. Inspite of the emphasis being placed on business studies as one of the subjects in secondary schools, there is usually not enough time provided in the time-table for a meaningful business studies work (Adeyemi, 2000). Business studies teachers are always interested to finish the syllabus before the external examination – Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE) conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC).
Hence, the prosecution of a functional education in relation to business studies in secondary schools still leaves much to be desired. In view of these difficulties, most teachers of business studies still resort to the theoretical method of teaching the subject. This undoubtedly, is contrary to the improvement of business studies education, which is greatly needed at this period of our development with emphasis on practical oriented learning (Mammudu, 2006). The researcher has visited a number of secondary schools as a resource person. Through these experiences, the researcher observed that most teachers in secondary schools in the state did not fully make use of instructional materials in the teaching of business studies to their students. This negligence of the effective use of the instructional facilities and materials in teaching and learning of business studies common to both the trained and untrained teachers affected the successful academic performance of students in business studies in secondary schools in Ekiti State.
The desire to embark on this research study therefore, stemmed from the fact that there is problem of poor performance of secondary school students in business studies in the state. This poor and general backwardness in business studies have been recorded for some years now by the examination bodies of Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE) conducted by the West African Examination Council (WAEC), school promotion examinations and the special qualifying examination, conducted by the State Ministry of Education, Studies and Technology, introduced for students in junior secondary schools respectively – (Department of Statistics, Planning and Research, Ministry of Education, Ado, 2007). The statistics obtained from fifteen secondary schools in Ekiti State have indicated that there is a progressive decline in the performance of students in business studies subjects. Statistics from the various examination offices of the schools revealed that out of a total of 1,964 business studies students that registered and sat for the West African Examination Council in 2009, only 610 passed and 1,354 students failed from the 15 secondary schools – representing 31% passed and 69% failed (School Examination Offices, 2010).
Anything that saves students from performing poorly in business studies, will also save parents or guardians from wasting their hard-earned money. It may put an end to parents or guardians wasting their hard-earned money re-enrolling their wards to repeat business studies examinations which they are not guaranteed passing even after several attempts. The unusual way some business studies teachers approach the teaching of business studies has contributed to the students’ development of negative attitude to both the subjects and the teachers. Most of the secondary schools cannot meet up with the academic (practical) requirements of this subject as they lack instructional materials for adequate teaching and learning of the subject.
The central problems which are attributed to the students’ poor academic performance in business studies in secondary schools’ in Ekiti State may be due to poor usage or not using appropriate instructional materials to teach business studies, issue of class size, inability to improve on the needed facilities, equipment, technical expertise, lack of business studies laboratories, workshops, seminars, poor organisation of the few available instructional materials, business studies teachers attitudes towards the use of instructional materials, non-improvisation of instructional materials by business studies teachers and the weakness of the school administrators in finding solutions to the problems for the effect of misuse of instructional materials, all need serious attention.
The appropriate utilization of instructional materials and teaching of business studies by experienced and qualified teachers may probably be the main solution to poor performance in Business studies. In order to develop interest of the students to the study of business studies in secondary schools and the participation of business studies teachers to teach the subject as a vocational business, the researcher deem necessary for the use of appropriate instructional materials for the teaching of Business studies in junior secondary schools setting in Ekiti State in particular.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate factors associated with the effect of using instructional materials in teaching business study in junior secondary in Ikere-Ekiti State. To be able to achieve this objective, the following specific objective shall be considered.
- To find out if there can be difference in the scores, on the test of business study of students in schools with adequate supply of qualified business study teachers and the score of students in schools with inadequate supply of qualified teachers.
- To highlight the extent of the availability of instructional materials in schools.
- To identify the role which instructional materials play in learning process.
- The study will identify the role which instructional materials play in bringing about effective teaching of business studies.
- The attention of school administrator and teacher will be drawn to the dearth of instructional materials the problem with the use of procurement of instructional materials will be brought to the fore-front.
- Research Questions
This study is to find out whether the effect of instructional materials can contribute to development of education in our junior secondary schools.
The study would answer question like:
- What role did instructional materials play in ensuring the understanding of the concept of business study?
- What is the state of availability of instructional materials?
- To what extent is the provision of instructional materials important to effective teaching of business studies?
- What effect are instructional materials on teaching?
- What are the factors that militate against the procurement of instructional materials for business studies schools?
- Significant of the Study
This is very significant as it would provide an index in the contribution of instructional materials to the attainment of the national policy on education objectives as it relate to business studies.
It will also expose some specific areas where more is required to be done in order to achieve the slated objective of secondary education in respect of vocational subjects.
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
The study looked at the effect of using instructional materials in teaching business studies in Junior Secondary Schools. This study is delimited to the Junior Secondary School in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. This is due to the fact that many offices exist all over the local government which could not be reached due to logistic problem.
1.7 Definition of Terms
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