THE EFFECTS OF RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS ON EDUCATION
The persistent religious conflicts in Nigeria have given thoughtful Nigerians a deep concern in recent times. Many of them wonder why religion which used o be the cohesive factor and core of national unity, peaceful co-existence factor and national development has become a tool for political manipulation, violence, destruction of lives and property in Nigeria in contemporary times. This paper first of all defined the terms that are used in this presentation. It also makes a review of some religious conflicts experienced in Nigeria together with their causes and the effects. The paper utilized both secondary sources and observation methods for data collection and presentation. Finding from the research reveals that the impact of religious conflicts on education is endemic in Nigeria. The paper recommends among others, that religious education should be taught in primary, secondary and higher institutions of learning in Nigeria and that government should employ meaningful ways such as education and inter-faith dialogue to enhance peaceful co-existence in Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of Content
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Scope of Study
Purpose of Study
Significance of Study
Definition of Terms
Population of Study
Validity of Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Presentation of Results and Analysis
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation 34
Background to the Study
Nigeria is populated by the adherents of Islamic Christianity and African Traditional Religion. However, the adherents of the three religions, especially Muslims and Christians are often engaged in conflict, leading to loss of lives and property.
A day hardly passes without the adherents of these two religions engaging in one conflict or the other. The religious scenario in Nigeria has assumed a violent dimension, leading to suicide bombings, loss of innocent lives and property. The area that is most affected with terrorists attacks is the definitive Northern region. That is, the north and the area called “middle belt” of Nigeria. Even if there is a seeming peace, the relationship between Christians and Muslims is marked with mutual suspicions and distrust. Amadu, (1989). These religious crises are more frequent in the north and they sometimes give birth to reprisal attacks in Eastern parts of Nigeria. The reprisal attacks by Christians in Eastern Nigeria are directed to all the northerners without distinction of religious affiliation. That is, both Christians and Muslims are victims of such attacks, (Drugba, 2006). Often, Northern Christians particularly suffer death casualties. At every twist of events, they lose lives in the Eastern parts of Nigeria during reprisal attacks. The ugly situation calls for reflection in education as one of the possible measures of preventing religious conflicts on education.
Education: When education is mentioned all minds naturally go to Western, Islamic and Traditional forms of education. Although, all these form religious education, yet, Education is a difficult subject to inquire into including attempts at definition as conception. This is because there are quite a significant number of definitions which have indicated that education is the oldest discipline in human history.
Mould (1992) noted that there are significant numbers of definitions for education given by various scholars. These definitions are all different in length, description, character and degree of definiteness. Therefore, it may not be easy to come out with a definite and universally acceptable definition of education. This notwithstanding, Lannap and Kazi (2003) described education as the oldest discipline in human history which deals with the art of acquiring knowledge at school or similar institution. It is the acquisition of knowledge or abilities gained through being educated (Encarta Microsoft 2007)
Adebayo (1977) sees education as the total process of human training by which knowledge is imparted, facilitated, trained and skills developed. Education is therefore supposed to cater for the cognitive, affective and psychomotor development of the individual.
Wisely (1975) defines education as knowledge, as a systematic cultivation of the mind and other natural pacers of the mind and other natural power of the knowledge and skill through training and instruction.
Gofwen (2004) views education as the imparting of knowledge through instruction to effect discipline and maturity of the mind.
Hans (1978) defines education as a science, when he asserts that:
Education as other sciences is based on facts and observations, which should be ranged in analytical tables easily compared in order to deduce principle and definite rules. Education should become a positive science instead of being ruled by narrow and limited opinions by whims and arbitrary decisions of administrators to be turned away from the direct line which it should follow, either by prejudice of a blind routing or by the spirit of some system and innovation.
These definitions clearly indicate that education is the activity of leading out bearing in mind that there is a point from which its present proceed and a future towards which the leading is done.
Amadu (1989) corroborated that education being a systematic cultivation of the natural powers of the mind for acquisition of skills through training and instruction has the capability of imparting knowledge to affect discipline and maturity in the recipient to enable him/her sunluves as an independent entity. In Nigeria, the development of education can therefore be seen in three major phases: pre-colonial, colonial and post colonial or post-independent era.
(Enoh 1987) The third epoch is western education, which was introduced by Christian missionaries that brought different individual together and social values.
Statement of the Problem
Conflict is a situation where there is state of unrest and peace is undermined in a society.
The heterogeneous nature of Nigerian society gives room for frequent micro-ethnic tensions thereby causing state of unrest in education sector. Conflicts as a socio cultural, political and economy development of Nigerian state, during this period of unrest, educational institutions and communities suffers in terms of property and lives of productive citizens, young and old that can be used for national development
Purpose of the Study
To examine the effects of conflicts on education in Nigeria
To know the cause of conflict on educational sector in Nigeria
To suggest and give appropriate recommendations to the challenges usually rises by conflicts.
Scope of the Study
It could be evident that the work shall be limited to Akure South Local Government of Ondo state. This is set to examine the effects of religious conflicts on education with particular reference to Akure south local government area of Ondo state.
The main reason for imitation the research on akure south local government is that there are many social and educational conflicts in the country and to make all as the case study would not be an effective ground for thorough research work. This has to be narrowed down to a specific area in which Akure South Local Government is of paramount importance.
Significance of the Study
Nigeria is a hetero-generous society with so many people with different cultures, norms and values these are the main factors that determine the basis of the acceptable mode of interaction among each members of society.
This work will properly examine how each of the above mentioned factors influenced religious conflicts in akure local government area, the causes and effect of religious conflicts in akure local government will be investigate and solution will be prescribed on how o reduce It to the bearable minimum in the society and on education.
This study will be useful to the social scientists, politicians, governments, non-governmental organizations human rights activities, law enforcement agents and it will provide a base for further research work.
Definition of Terms
Education: is a process of transmitting, refining and preserving the collective values can be added in the culture of the society’s cultural reproductive system.
Society: is the aggregate of people living together in a more or less ordered community. It is also a situation of being in the company of other people
Traditional: it I the passing down of elements if a culture from generation to generation, especially by oral communication.
Religion: it is the belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a personal God or gods.
Conflict: it is a serious disagreement or argument, typically a protracted one. It is also being incompatible or not variance clash
THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Religious conflict is a term that has to be variously defined by scholars. These definitions are diverse and they all convey the single meaning disagreement between the two or more religious groups.
Hornby (2006) defined religious conflicts as a situation in which religion adherents are involved in a serious disagreement or argument with the one religious and another. This is a situation in which there are opposition in ideals opinions feeling and washes.
Olite and Olawale (1999) Sees religious conflicts as struggle over values and claims to score resources, status and power in which the aims of the opponents are to naturalize, inure or eliminate their rivals. This definition very much suits or reflects the conflict between Muslims and Christians in Nigeria.
Gyuse (2006) further points out that when two more persons, groups, communities or nations seek to take possession or eliminate a particular object of value at the exclusion of others, conflicts ensures.
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