1.1 Background to the study

The world is quickly becoming scientific in thinking and behavior that without good knowledge of science, it might be difficult for people to adequately function in it. The role of science in the development of modern societies cannot be overemphasized.

According to Busari(2006),the whole world is experiencing the development of science and technology. Each nation is either a powerful producer of technology or a consumer of other nations’ technology efforts.

However, physics as a science oriented course or discipline is known for its absurd nature-having no material existence. Sometimes the physics teacher do not have adequate knowledge but have fall on ideas which leads to contradictions with what the physics theory says or meant.

Bill (2001) said; The relationship between memory and learning is clearly a very important one. It is also an area where there has been a certain amount of misleading writing especially in popular press. So, you can read about foods that are meant to improve your memory dramatically and techniques that are claimed to transform your life forever. The danger is that the hype gets in the way of basic understanding that undoubtedly will help you to improve your memory.

From time to time, interesting articles appear about what is going on in the brain. Harnessing knowledge is an issue for every human being, which is why we need to understand how our memory works.

Every time you sense something, an electrochemical connection is made. It leaves a trace or pathway of connection between your synapses. For the memory to stick however, it has to mean something. Your brain has to find some meaning in it. Relevance to something you are already interested in may help a memory to stick.

Emotions also play an important part. Chemicals are produced that act as effective transmitters to help you lay down effective memories. It seems likely that, in moderate amount, the two neurotransmitters – adrenaline and noradrenaline (also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine) acts as fixers helping to ensure that a memory becomes long-term.

In more specific terms the idea central to this paper is that the justification for the role of mental images in the creative process lies in the analysis of the link between imagery and perception. That perception – those cognitive devices with which an organism relates to the surrounding world – is an inexhaustible source of information constitutes a patently obvious fact. Less obvious is the fact that imagery is a similar source of information. In this paper we aim to examine what at first sight appears to be an obvious paradox: if mental images are the product of memorized information (and therefore already available to the subject), how can they be used in situations where new information is discovered? It is our theory that in order to explain the role of mental images in creative processes (thus solving the paradox) it is necessary to examine the relationship between imagery and visual perception.

Imagery, in a literary text, is a author’s use of vivid and descriptive language to add depth to their work. It appeals to human sense to deepen the reader’s understanding of the work. Visual imagery is one of the seven major types of imagery. Visual imagery pertains to graphics, visual scenes, pictures or the sense of sight.

Teaching with imagery can also help develop students’ perception, which contributes to their overall critical thinking skills and lifelong learning.

To attain a perfect glimpse of the nature of waves, the need of visual imagery is highly important.

Learner-generated explanations of scientific phenomena may be an important learning strategy to consider beyond the utility of learning from a provided external visualization. Explanations convey information about concepts or processes with the goal of making clear and comprehensible an idea or set of ideas. Explanations may involve a variety of elements, such as the use of examples and analogies (Roscoe & Chi, 2007).

Learner-generated visualizations have been explored in several domains. Gobert and Clement (1999) investigated the effectiveness of student-generated diagrams versus student-generated Summaries on understanding plate tectonics after reading an expository text.

As you probably already know, a WAVE is a disturbance which travel through a medium transferring  energy from one point to another without causing any permanent displacement of the medium. A WAVE MOTION is a process of transferring a disturbance (in form of kinetic energy) from one point to another in a medium without any transfer of particle of the medium.

The creation of mental image in the student’s mind or the student imploring imagery in studying is a process which benefits cannot be overemphasized.

1.2.      Statement of Problem

Physics being quite a challenging subject, wave specifically here, stringent measures and strategies must be employed in its retention.

The educational system here in Nigeria is a little bit behind when compared to more advanced nations like Finland, US, UK, Australia, Canada etc. Taken thus, the need for viable teaching-learning strategies arise – this paper will elucidate the spatial ability of students in Ekiti state secondary schools taken Ado-Ekiti,Ekiti state as a case study.

Wave for its implicit nature requires the use of imagery to imbibe in the students a clear understanding of what specific models, theories, laws, etc means.

Concerned about this worrisome situation and the urgent need for Nigerian Educational- Administration bodies, Educationalist and students, lecturers and instructors to relate with the global trend in education, this study intends to:

  1. Present an analysis of the spatial ability of students who were taught ‘WAVE’ by visual imagery and those who weren’t.
  2. Present an overview of the five principles of visual imagery and how they aid retention.
  • Evaluate the efficacy of visual imagery in retention of Wave.

1.3.       Purpose of the study.

This study is designed to investigate the spatial ability of students in Wave with the aid of visual imagery. Specifically, the study seeks to evaluate :

  1. The spatial ability of students in Wave in some selected secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti state.
  2. The efficacy of visual imagery in retaining the knowledge of Wave.
  3. The efficacy of visual imagery in retention.



1.4.      Significance of the study.

  1. The outcome of this study will unveil the benefits of visual imagery in retention of Wave in Ekiti states secondary schools.
  2. This study will also encourage students to develop interest towards learning with Visual imagery.
  3. This study will also make the school authority and the governments realize how vital visual imagery is in learning or retention of knowledge and thereby improving Ekiti state’s secondary schools students’ academic performance in physics.

     1.5.           Research Questions

The following research questions were raised for the study.

  1. Is there any relationship between the spatial abilitiesof Ekiti  states’  secondary school students in retention of knowledge of Wave?
  2. Will there be any relationship between visual imagery and students’ performance in Wave?
  3. Will visual imagery affect or influence the performance of Ekiti states’ secondary schools students in retaining knowledge of wave?

1.6.      Research Hypothesis.

Based on the above research questions the following research hypothesis will be formulated.

  1. There is a significant relationship in students’ performance in wavein different secondary schools in Ekiti state when taught without Visual imagery.
  2. There is a significant relationship between visual imagery and students’ retention of Wave in Ekiti states’ secondary schools.

1.7.       Delimitation of the Study

The study I delimited to secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti. It is delimited to senior secondary school science in four secondary schools in the Local Government Area.

1.8.    Definition of Terms

The following terms are operationally defined as used in the study.

– Visual imagery is synonymous to visualization. It is the visual perception an individual creates in his mind about a particular object or phenomenon. Informally the term can be understood to refer to “pictures in the mind.”

-Retention: This is an individual’s ability to store a particular information in the long-term memory.

-Efficacy:Ability to produce a desired effect under ideal testing conditions.




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