ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE A CASE STUDY OF ONDO STATE
The study examined the environmental factors and students’ academic performance. The study also aimed to find how unfavourable environmental factor cause poor academic performance
Descriptive research design method was used for this study. Data are collected as its, analyzed and reported without manipulation or distortion of any of the variables. The choice of a descriptive research design method is borne out of the fact this method focuses on people and their attributes which will help the researcher to understand the topic. To achieve this, the researcher has used a survey questionnaires. The population for this research work covers all the students in Ondo State while one hundred (100) students were randomly selected for the purpose of this study from five selected secondary schools in Ondo State. The stratified random sampling technique was used for the selection. A test re-test method was used to ensure reliability of the instrument. A sample of specimen was randomly selected to respond to the questionnaire on two different occasion with a time interval of two weeks. Data collected were analysed using frequency count, simple percentage, and statistic means to determine the degree of responses by the researcher.
From the findings, it was revealed that school climate provides a solid foundation for supporting students’ academic performance in accounting, school climate results in positive outcomes and better result for school teachers as well, school climate interferes with learning and development, Students in schools with a better school climate have higher performance in accounting and better socio emotional health.
The study concluded that the issue of academic performance of students in Nigeria should be a concern to the government, parents, teachers and even student themselves. The quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the school environment.
Based on the findings of this study and conclusion, the following recommendations were made: Appropriate school authorities should enable to provide a conducive school environment that has good climate for effective teaching and learning. Such environment should be safe, students treated fairly by teachers and happy to be in school as well as feel they are a part of the school. Effective school discipline should be encouraged by head teachers in controlling teachers’ behaviour capable of jeopardizing students’ academic performance in schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Delimitation of the Study
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Influence of Environmental Factors on the Academic Performance
in Social Studies Students
School Facilities and students performance in Social Studies
School Climate as it Affects Academic Performance of Student in
Home Background on the Academic performance of students
Technology and Students Academic Performance
Parental Socio-economic Status and Student Performance
Summary of Literature
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Validity of Instrument
Reliability of Instrument
Administration of Instrument
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Background to the Study
Environmental influence before now have not been considered as one of the factors that affect academic performance in secondary schools hence it has little or no attention in educational discourse and consideration. But over the past decade remarkable studies have indicated a correlation between the environment and academic performance of students. Environment plays major role in the life of every individual whether a students, teachers, employer or employee. Though some people are yet to believe that environment brings about better performance. Udoh (2010) Identified some unhealthy practices in our schools. These include sitting of schools, inadequate facilities, poor ventilation etc.
Most of our schools have no light, insufficient facilities, sick buildings and no ventilation. Under these conditions the health of students and teachers according to Udoh (2010) may be adversely affected, which will in turn reflect on students’ performance. Therefore, for the students to carry his learning effectively and efficiently, it is necessary that learning takes place in conducive environment.
This has led to the contention that many students fail to develop their potentials due to inadequate environmental stimulation. However, there are some environmental factors which have contributed to this poor performance of students which are home background, inadequate school facilities, misuse of technology such as internet and school climate such as teacher-student relationship etc.
Despite the huge expenditure on education by the local, state and federal governments, the system not functioning properly students in our secondary schools are of tender age and this is the period they require adequate guidance and control from the government for effective learning unfortunately for the students, what could be considered as the environment of the students such as home, school and the society have contributed immensely towards poor performances of students in school subjects including social studies.
According to Ikpaya (2009) the postnatal environment of the child stretches from the family, the neighborhood to the school, a good environment is the one that stimulates learning and promotes intellectual development. It is also one in which learning resource as books and other aids are available and where social interaction is encouraged.
According to (Ajewole and Okebukola 2000), a number of factors are said to have contributed to the students’ poor academic performance in schools. This authors stress that a host of these factors may surround students’ poor performance in school which may include: poor study habits and lack of resource materials, poor school climate, indiscipline, inadequate facilities, teachers’ ineffectiveness, the teaching method and the type of learning environment available for both the students and the teachers. From the authors view, the poor performance of students in secondary school may be a reflection of the type of learning environment.
Farombi (1998) observed, that school environment may have negative influence on students’ academic performance especially if such environment lacks good school climate, instructional materials, discipline as well as , physical facilities. Again poor teacher quality, type of location of school and over population of students in classrooms are another important factors that can affect secondary school students academic performance. Farombi (1998) further opined that school facilities are a potent factor to quantitative education. Its importance to teaching and learning though provision of adequate instructional facilities for education cannot be over-emphasized. Environment here refers to facilities that are available to enhance students learning outcome. This facilities include books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology; so also, size of classroom, sitting position and arrangement, availability of tables, chairs, chalkboards, shelves on which instruments for practical’s are arranged (Farrant, 1991 and Farombi, 1998).
Tsavga, (2011) maintains that the learning environment plays a vital role in determining how students perform or respond to circumstances and situations around them. This implies that no society is void of environmental influences. The learning environment determines to a large extent how a student behaves and interacts, that is to say that the environment in which we find ourselves tend to mould our behaviour so as to meet the demands of life whether negatively or positively. Tsavga (2011), opined that the desire for both qualitative and quantitative education has multiplied the problem of providing an effective and conducive learning environment for teaching and learning. In Nigeria, there is an increase in the number of students’ enrolment in schools with little or no regards to improving the learning environment so as to better their academic performance.
Schools with good and conducive environment usually has the best type of teachers, instructional materials and physical facilities which tends to produce better school leavers with high performance. Another important factor is the issue of discipline among teachers. The extent at which some teachers, exhibit high level of indiscipline does not seem to portray them as role models. They rather encourage indiscipline among students by their attitudes which may have negative influence of students’ academic performance. For example when students fail to do their assignments and the teachers leaves the student unpunished such teachers are encouraging indiscipline which may lead to poor performance of such students. To buttress further Lumuli, 2009 view school environment as the immediate surroundings of the school which also include classrooms dining halls, examination halls, football fields among others. For learning to be meaningful and effective, Learning environment according to Zaria in Aliade, (2008) is a place where teachers impact knowledge of the various subjects to students thereby bringing them up morally and guide them as regards to career choice. Awule, (2009) cited in Aliade, (2008) stated that learning environment should have good infrastructural development, adequate trained teachers, good leadership and adequate instructional materials among others. All these characteristics according to the author have positive impact on academic performance of students in secondary schools.
In the same vein Abenga, (1995), opined that an improved environmental condition leads to higher intelligent scores while poor environmental conditions reduce these scores. Academic performance in this context simply means the scores students have obtained in either examination or test which has led to their performance.
Various studies done on effect of school environment on academic performance attest to the fact that school environment that is not conducive for learning may lead to under performance (Chimombe, 2011). Learning involves interaction of students with the environment. Teaching and learning resources include classrooms, laboratories, libraries, playing fields, textbooks among others. Indeed physical resources go a long way in creating conducive environment that promote effective teaching and learning
Juma, (2011) links performance in examinations to state of teaching and learning resources in schools. He noted that students from poor backgrounds perform poorly in the examinations because the poverty are often in areas where schools are seriously deprived of vital facilities, an attitude of helplessness may be inculcated early into children making them feel that being in school is a waste of time.
Physical materials in terms of adequacy and quality have been noted to have a great impact on performance of students in the examination (Husen, 2008). A school that has adequate instructional materials is likely to post better quality grades than a school which has poor quality physical resources. A school with inadequate classrooms will be forced to accommodate more students than recommended. This will exert a lot of pressure on resources such as teachers who may compromise their methodology as part of adaptive mechanism (Nafukho, 2001; 2005). The lack of basic facilities like laboratories has compromised the teaching of science subjects. Topics that are meant to be taught practically are taught theoretically as part of adaptive mechanism by teachers due to inadequate resources to enable effective teaching of the same. This ends up affecting negatively students’ performance reducing their competitiveness for opportunities whose placement is pegged on performance in such subjects (Mayama 2012; Lumuli, 2009). This study proposes to establish the state of physical facilities in school Akure –Ekiti in order to evaluate how it is impacting on academic performance of learners. A deprived environment is one which neither stimulates learning nor promotes intellectual development. It is devoid of such resources as toys. According to Taiwo (2011) it is record that most students in secondary schools performed poorly in school subject, and this an impediment for the attainment of the national goal of technological advancement and socio-economic reconstruction. The logical thing to do is to identify the root causes of an aliment and them apply appropriate cure.
The researcher will examine the root causes as shortage of qualified and dedicated teachers, inadequate provision of funds to pay teachers’ salaries and lack of well stocked libraries in our secondary schools, lack of encouragement to the students, lack of proper supervision monitoring of students progress by parents and teachers as well as mystifying beliefs associated without people will also be examined.
The researcher intends to examine critically the contributions of each of the environmental variables towards low academic performance students in Ondo state.
Statement of the Study
This study is concerned with investigating the extent to which environmental variables contribute to poor performance of students in social studies. Some schools have no light, insufficient facilities, sick buildings and no ventilation, poor road, at time student will have to walk long distance for not less than 30 minutes before they can get to their learning place. Under these conditions the health of students and teachers is in danger.
However, some of the environmental problems which also contribute to this poor performance of students in social studies are home background, inadequate school facilities, misuse of technology such as internet and school climate such as teacher-student relationship etc. Given this situation, the problem of the study therefore is to find out really if these are the main environmental variables influencing student academic performance in social.
For the purpose of this study the following research questions were raised;
- What are the factors that affect student use of school facilities?
- What are the climate variables that affect student’s academic performance?
- What influence has home background on the academic performance of students?
- What influence has technology on academic performance of students?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the environmental factors and students’ academic performance. The study also aimed;
- To find how unfavourable environmental factor cause poor academic performance
- To determine why students brought up in different background perform differently in academics
- To discuss other factors that can cause poor academic performance of student
- To offer suggestions on how to improve students’ academic performance
Significance of the Study
The study will offer suggestion to parents on the ways of improving and encouraging the education of their children
The study will also offer suggestion to teachers and the government to great favourable and conducive environment in schools for effective learning of social studies
Since we do not lack children from different environment in our society, suggestion will be made available to parents, teachers and counselors on how to bring up such children so that they do not feel inferior or rejected in the society or life.
Delimitation of the study
The study will be conducted in twenty secondary school in Akure South Local Government Area. Ten from urban and ten from rural centre’s of the Local Government.
The researchers has dedicated to limit herself to the above named area due to financial as well as time constraints. The terrain of the local government area especially during the rainy season makes it difficult for extensive courage.
Definition of Terms
The term used in this study are operationally defined as follows;
Academic performance: Outcome and realization of learning measured after learning process has taken place in a person. Is the outcome of education — the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.
School environment factors: Refers to physical and human used by schools in promotion of academic performance.
Teacher : A person who cares enough about abusive and ungrateful teens to work for crappy pay and long hours while hoping someday students mature enough to realize how lucky they are to have someone who gives a shit about them.
Student: a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college; or any person who studies, investigates, or examines thoughtfully:
Classroom: This is a particular room or centre where students are being taught
Textbooks: This are instructional material use for learning purposes.
School Environment: This refers to all the facilities surrounding a school. A school environment is broadly characterized by its facilities, classrooms, school-based health supports, and disciplinary policies and practices. It sets the stage for the external factors that affect students.
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