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EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WHITE MUCUNA PRURIENS VAR. UTILIS SEED OIL

EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WHITE MUCUNA PRURIENS VAR. UTILIS SEED OIL

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CONTENT                                                                                                PAGE

TITLE PAGE –    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

CERTIFICATION –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

DEDICATION     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT      –        –        –        –        –        –        –

ABSTRACT        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

TABLE OF CONTENTS       –        –        –        –        –        –        –

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    PREAMBLE        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

1.1    INTRODUCTION         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

1.2    OBJECTIVE OF STUDY      –        –        –        –        –        –

1.3    SCOPE OF WORK     –        –        –        –        –        –        –

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    LITERATURE REVIEW        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.1    FATS AND OILS         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.2.0  COMPONENTS OF MUCUNA SEEDS         –        –        –        –

2.2.1 NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES      –        –        –        –        –

.2.2 ANTINUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES       –        –        –        –

2.2.3 PHARMACEUTICAL PROPERTIES     –        –        –        –

2.3.0 PLANT FATTY ACIDS AND OIL  –        –        –        –        –

2.4.1 RENDERING      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.4.2 PRESSING OR EXPELLING        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.4.3 SOLVENT METHOD –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.4.4. SUPERCRITICAL METHOD        –        –        –        –        –

2.4.5 ENZYME METHOD    –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.5.0 REACTIONS OF FATS AND OILS        –        –        –        –        –

2.5.1 RANCIDIFICATION     –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.5.2 HYDROGENATION    –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.6.0 PROPERTIES OF LIPIDS   –        –        –        –        –        –

2.6.1 CHEMICAL INDICES  –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.6.2 PHYSICAL INDICES   –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.7.0 USES OF FATS AND OIL    –        –        –        –        –        –

2.7.1 FOOD INDUSTRY      –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.7.2 FATS IN SOAP AND DETERGENT INDUSTRY     –        –

2.7.3 FATS IN THE COATING INDUSTRY    –        –        –        –

2.7.4 FATS IN THE COSMETIC INDUSTRY –        –        –        –

2.7.5 FATS IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDSUTRY    –        –        –

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    MATERIALS AND METHODS      –        –        –        –        –

3.1 SOURCING OF SAMPLES     –        –        –        –        –        –

3.2 PREPARATION OF SAMPLES       –        –        –        –        –

3.3 OIL EXTRACTION         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.3.1 DETERMINATION OF PERCENTAGE OIL YIELD –        –

3.4 DETERMINATION OF PERCENTAGE MOISTURE  –        –

3.5.0 OIL ANALYSIS   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.5.1 DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE DENSITY –        –        –

3.5.2 DETERMINATION OF MELTING TEMPERATURE         –        –

3.5.3 DETERMINATION OF IODINE VALUE –        –        –        –

3.5.4 DETERMINATION OF PEROXIDE VALUE    –        –        –

3.5.5. DETERMINATION OF PH OF THE OIL         –        –        –        –

3.5.6 DETERMINATION OF ACID VALUE     –        –        –        –

3.5.7 DETERMINATION OF SAPONIFICATION VALUE –        –

3.5.8 FATTY ACID COMPOSITION USING TLC    –        –        –

3.5.9 FATTY ACID PROFILE OF THE OIL USING GLC  –        –

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION     –        –        –        –        –

4.1    RESULTS –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

4.2    DISCUSSION     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

4.3    CONCLUSION   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

REFERENCE     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

APPENDIX I       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

APPENDIX II      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    PREAMBLE

1.1    INTRODUCTION

          In our world today, the geometric increase of the population has raised alarming concerns on the food security to sustain the teeming population (Sridhar, 2007). The worse hit is developing countries in Africa, especially Nigeria that still lacks the capacity to manage food production tasks arising from the current global warming and other environmental changes. The few food products usually lack adequate proteins, essential fatty acids and vitamins leading to the common form of malnutrition in individuals.

Interestingly, unconventional legumes are promising in terms of nutrition, provisions of food security, agricultural development and in crop rotation in developing countries (Sridhar, 2007). The wild legume varieties have different quantities of protein, carbohydrates, fiber, lipid/fatty acids and minerals.

Mucuna pruriens var.utilis is a tropical legume of the family Fabaceae and genus Mucuna. Some of its common names are Agbara (Igbo), Yerepe (Yoruba), Mauritius bean, cow itch, cow hage, Jackbohne (German). Velvet bean is an annual perennial, herbaceous, vigorous climbing vine that growso 3-18cm in height. It is indigenous of the tropical regions especially Africa, India and the West Indies. Its pods are sigmoid, turgid, longitudinally ribbed and always clustered on the stem and the pods are covered with reddish-orange hairs that dislodge readily causing intense irritation on the skin. The pods contain seeds that are black or white (Siddhuraju, 2000; Leslie, 2005; Sridhar, 2007).

The oil contents of Mucuna seed may be edible and consist of different fatty acid which is a characteristic identify of most oil seeds. The chemical composition of an oil extract gives a qualitative identification of such oil in selection of areas while it can be applied or utilized despite differences in processing and extraction of the oil (Ofoegbu, – 2006).

 

The aim of this work thus is to extract the oil from the white seeds of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, characterize it and determine the applicability, based on the quantities, in industries such beverage, pharmaceutical and/or soap manufacturing.

 

  • OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

This work was inspired by the need to find alternative sources of good oils for human utilization in industries.

 

  • SCOPE OF WORK

This work is intended:

 

(1)     To determine the percentage of oil content of white seeds of Mucuna pruriens var.utilis

 

(2)     To determine the moisture contents of the seeds used

 

(3)     To characterize, by obtaining the physio-chemical properties of the oil

 

(4)     To suggest possible industry the oil can be utilized based on the results and the information provided in literature on oils.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    FATS AND OILS

Mixture of fatty acid esters of glycerol are generally referred to as fats and oil. They are composed of fatty acid molecules which possess carbon chains ranging from 3 to 18 carbon atoms. The carbon chains maybe saturated when it has no double bond or unsaturated when it has double bond in its chains (Ofoegbu, 2006).

Oils and fats belong to a group of compounds called lipids. Oils are liquid at room temperature while fats are solid at room temperature. Also, oils contain unsaturated fatty acids while fats are composed of saturated fatty acids. Chemically, both fats and oil are composed of triacylglycerol as contrasted with waxes which lack glycerol in their structure. Typically, fats and oils contain free fatty acids, monoacylglycerides and diacylglycerides.

Plants and animals are the major sources of fats and oils. Animal oils are chiefly formed by heating animal fats (Kingfisher, 1995) and similarly, both fats and oils of different origins can be artificially produced.

Vegetable fats and oils are lipid materials derived from plants and may be edible or inedible. Some edible vegetable oils include; Soya bean oil, Pumpkin seed oil, Corn oil, Safflower oil, Rice bran oil e.t.c. While inedible vegetable oils and fats include processed Linseed oil, Tung oil and Castor oil e.t.c Although different parts of plants may yield oil, in commercial quantity, oil is extracted primarily from seeds.

Mucuna seeds have been reported to have low lipid yield (Sridharar. 2007) and the colour of the oils is golden yellow or light yellow.

2.2.0 COMPONENTS OF MUCUNA SEEDS

2.2.1 NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES

          Legumes have been shown to have long shelf-live and provide more proteins, abundant carbohydrates, high fiber, and low fat with high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (Sridhar, 2007).

Some ethnic groups in Nigeria use pods and leaves as vegetables (Adebowale, 2003b) while some seeds, M. cochinchinesis are consumed during famine or scarcity of legumes and as well marketed in rural communities of Enugu and Kogi in Nigeria (Onweluzo, 2003). In Igbo community of Sub-Saharan Africa they are used as condiment in stew, sauce (Una), gel(Okpa), roasted snacks, porridge, Moi-moi and fried cake while mostly, seeds of M. urens are used as thickeners of soup and vegetable oil (Ukachukwu, 2002). Most literature works on M. spp usage in food did not report any adverse effect on human health.

The mature seeds of Velvet bean contains 314.4g/Kg crude protein (Siddhuraju, 1996) and its essential amino acids profile of total seed proteins compared favourably with FAO/WHO reference pattern except for sulphur amino acids. Velvet beans is used as source of protein in diet of fish, poultry, pig, and cattle after subjection to appropriate processing methods (Vadivel, 2000). Eight accessions of Mucuna gave crude protein range between 24-31.445 including M. pruriens var. utilis with 26.40% (Sridharar, 2007) as against 23.4% by Thomas, (2006).

Prakish (2001) reported that M. nivea, M. pruriens, M. utilis have poor oil contents between 4.9-5.5% and 41.1g/Kg by Siddhuraju (1996). Some investigators reported 5.4%, 6.3-7.4%, 8.47-14% (Vadivel and Jonardhanan, 2000; Thomas, 2006; Sridhar, 2007). Nutritional analysis reveals ‘that M. pruriens contains crude lipid between 46.1-53.5g/kg and the seed lipids were high in unsaturated fatty acids, 64.7-66.9%, specifically linoleic acid 48-49% (Siddhuraju, 2000). Also, it has been shown to contain oils with high unsaturated fatty acids, 47.2% linolelic acid, 14.2% oleic acid, 3.8% linolenic and 0.5% palmitoleic acid (Thomas, 2006). Leslie (2005) experiment  showed that the seeds also contain Myristic acid, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid and Gallic acid.

Some authors reported dietary fibre in the range of 6.7 – 19.5% (Siddhuraju, 2000; Vadivel, 2000; Vijayakwnari, 2002). Also, Thomas 92006) reported 51.5% in Velvet bean.

Ash and mineral content of Mucuna seeds showed that the ash content ranges from 2.9-5.5% (Vadivel, 2000; Sridhar, 2007) and also containi Thiamine (13.9ppm) and Riboflavin (1.8ppm) Other result reported ash content to be 41.1g/Kg (Siddhuraju, 1996) and 3.0% (Thomas, 2006).

  1. pruriens var. utilis contains low digestible and high resistant starch and soluble sugars in the range between 9.2-10.5% in whole seeds, 10.1-11.5% in dehulled seeds (Siddhuraju, 2000). Carbohydrates of legumes are known to reduce plasma cholesterol and gradually elevate blood glucose levels (Thomas, 2006). Sridhar (2007) reported that velvet beans contains 49.6% of digestible carbohydrate.

Among the minerals of M. utilis seeds, Pottasium constitutes the major element (778-1846mg/100g) then Calcium (104-900mg/100g), Iron (1.3-15mg/100g) -9.26mg/100g) Copper (0.22-4.34mg/100g), Zinc 91.0-15mg/100g), Manganese 0.56(Sridhar, 2007). Low Pottasium (356-483mg/100g) was reported by Adebowale (2005a) and Thomas (2006) showed 0.18% for Calcium, 0.99% phosphorus and 1.36% potassium.

Velvet bean seeds have starch content with high viscousity (Thomas, 2006). The bulk density, water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity increased in the defatted samples.

  • ANTINUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES

The presence of high levels of protein and carbohydrate  have been reported to be present in Mucuna seeds but their utilization is low due to presence of antinutritional / antiphysiological compounds, phenolics, tannins, L-3, -4- dihydroxyphenyalanine (L- DOPA), protease inhibitors etc (Vadivel, 2000).

L-DOPA, a potential antinutritional and toxic compound has been reported present in M.spp and ranges between 1.81% in M. pruriens var utilis grown in USA to 7.64% in M. pruriens var cochinchinesis grown in Benin from Sridhar (2007) report.

Protease inhibitors have been reported to be present in Mucuna seeds and in M. pruriens var utilis, Sridhar (2007) revealed that black seed accessions showed higher trypsin (48:20-49.60TIU/mg) and chymotrypsin (28.7 and 30.1 CIU/mg) activity than white seed (trypsin 45:20-46. 10TIU/mg); chymotrypsin 26:2 and 27.1 CIU/mg).

Saponin content in Mucuna seeds varies Saponins complexes with carbohydrate moiety of triterpenoids present in Mucuna seeds which on consumption causes deleterious effects on the intestine. (Sridhar, 2007).

Phytic acid limits bioavailability of dietary element and essential trace elements in human intestine. Ezeagu (2003) reported that various accessions contain between 0.48% and 0.85% in contrast to 1.05-1.22% reported by SIddhuraju (2001c).

Polyphenolics complexes with dietary proteins to reduce activity of digestive enzymes like a-amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin and lipase which reduces digestion (Sridhar, 2007). Phenolics prevent iron reabsorbtion, reduce Vitamin B12 absorption and cause damage to mucosa of digestive tract (Siddhuraju, 2000; Vadivel, 2000; Sridhar, 2007).

Hemagglutinins, with reference to lectins, bind to carbohydrates-containing molecules and resist digestion when ingested but combining with brush border cell lining causes non-specific interference with the absorption of nutrients (Sridhar, 2007). There has been conflicting reports on its presence in Mucuna seeds and effect on blood groups A, B and O.

  1. pruriens contains an oligosaccharide, verbasecose which Entamoeba hystolitica and E. hartmanni utilize to produce flatus because monogastric animals lack a-1, 60 galactosidase activity (Sridhar, 2007).

 

 

2.2.3 PHARMACEUTICAL PROPERTIES

          Mucuna seeds are used in treating leucorrhoea, spermatorrhoea and aphrodisiac related treatments. It posses anabolic, analgesic, androgenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-parkinson, anti-spasmodic, antivenin, febrifuge, hormonal, hypochlestremic, hypoglycemic, immunomodulatory, nervine, neurasthenic, blood cleanser, antilithic, cough suppressant, hypotensive, menstral stimulant and uterine stimulant activities (Leslie, 2005; Thomas, 2006: Sridhar, 2007). From clinical research, it should not be used during pregnancy because of birth defects on animals studied (Leslie, 2005).

The medicinal effect of Mucuna can be linked to its phytochemical contents, including alkaloids, alkylamines, arachidic acid, behenic acid, betacarboline, beta-sitosterol, bufetenine, cysteine, dopamine, fatty acids, flavones, glutathione, galactose, gallic acid, genistein, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, hydroxygenistein, 5-hydroxytryptamine, methionine, 6-methoxyhamarman, mucunain, mucunadine prurienidine, prureinine, riboflavin, saponins, serine, serotonin, stearic acid, myristic acid, stizolamine, niacin, threonine, trypsin, tryptamine, tyrosine, valine, vernolic acid (Leslie, 2005; Thomas, 2006; Sridhar, 2007).

Interestingly, polyphenolic contents of M. pruriens var. utilis possesses an anti-cardioceerebrovascular effect, and cancer motility (Sridhar, 2007). Its seeds contain 5-hydoxytryptophan, L-3-carboxy-6,7-dihydroxy- 1, 2, 3, 4—tetarahydroisoquinolone, 1-methyl-3-carboxy-6,7 –dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline that have antioxidant activity against hydroxyl and sueproxide radicals (Siddhuraju, 2003b).

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